Nervous tissue

Nervous tissue

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Neuron: main element of human nervous tissue


Nerve tissue is a set of cells in the human body responsible for performing specific tasks in our body. This complex structure is of fundamental importance for the proper functioning of our body, as it performs fundamental functions, mainly related to the coordination of bodily activities.

Nerve tissue is made up of two cell types: neurons and neuroglia cells.

Nervous tissue functions

- Receive external and internal stimuli;

- Transform the received stimuli into nerve impulses;

- Pass these nerve impulses to organs and tissues responsible for performing the necessary actions;

- Directly and quickly control the main parts of the body;

- Allows humans to interact with the environment and other living things.

The neurons and their functions

Also known as nerve cells, neurons are responsible for receiving external and internal stimuli and turning them into nerve impulses. Neurons also pass these impulses to other neurons, glands, and muscle fibers.

The neuron is an extremely stimulable and most excitable cell, as it is a conduction cell.

Neurons are made up of three parts:

- Cell body: has nucleus and other organelles.

- Dendrites: short and branched cell extensions. They receive information from other neurons or sensory receptors.

- Axons: transport the nerve impulses. They are usually thin and long and cylindrical in shape.


Also known as neuroglial cell, they perform several important functions in our body. It is these cells that help maintain a chemical environment conducive to the production of chemical impulses. They also play a key role in protecting the central nervous system against certain diseases.


- Vegetables do not have nervous tissue, as this is unique to animals.

- The word neuron derives from the Greek "neuron", which means nerve.

Synapses are the areas of chemical connection between neurons, between neurons and muscle fibers, or between neurons and glandular cells.

Last reviewed: 01/02/2019

By Elaine Barbosa de Souza
Undergraduate student in Biological Sciences, Methodist University of São Paulo.