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13.4: New Page - Biology

13.4: New Page - Biology


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13.4: New Page

13.4: New Page - Biology

4 Love (A) is patient, love is kind, it (B) is not jealous love does not brag, it is not (C) arrogant. 5 It does not act disgracefully, it (D) does not seek its own benefit it is not provoked, (E) does not keep an account of a wrong suffered, 6 (F) it does not rejoice in unrighteousness, but (G) rejoices with the truth 7 it [a] (H) keeps every confidence, it believes all things, hopes all things, endures all things.

8 Love never fails but if there are gifts of [b] (I) prophecy, they will be done away with if there are (J) tongues, they will cease if there is knowledge, it will be done away with. 9 For we (K) know in part and prophesy in part 10 but when the perfect comes, the partial will be done away with. 11 When I was a child, I used to speak like a child, think like a child, reason like a child when I [c] became a man, I did away with childish things. 12 For now we (L) see in a mirror [d] dimly, but then (M) face to face now I know in part, but then I will know fully, just as I also (N) have been fully known. 13 But now faith, hope, and love remain, these three but the [e] greatest of these is (O) love.


IOS 13.4 beta welcomes nine new Memoji stickers

If you have been eager to see new Memoji sticker types arrive for iOS, the wait is almost over.

Rene Ritchie was the first to catch the new addition along with the first beta seed of iOS 13.4 earlier today. There are nine new Memoji sticker types in general, which you can see each of which in the image at the top of this article. We’ve got a person sitting behind a MacBook, smoke coming out of a person’s nose, a character rolling their eyes, shock or surprise, love, celebration, and more.

It’s not a major update or anything, but nine new options isn’t anything to scoff at. Apple seeded just the first developer beta of iOS 13.4 earlier today, so we are more than likely weeks away from a public launch of the mobile operating system. Which means we’re weeks away from seeing these new Memoji sticker types arrive for the public.


Files which have the the Mode3 label are made specifically for extended memory games on Old 3DS/2DS models. (To detect if you are using an extended memory game, check if the console reboots after you close it from the home menu.) You don't need to install the Mode3 version if you don't want to use any extended memory game or you have a New 3DS/2DS.

The banner is the 3D model that shows in the top screen when you select the app in the home menu. The difference is only visual and is up to your own choice.


Guess the colour!

In this project you will learn some of the basics of JavaScript, one of the world’s most popular programming languages. You will make a colour guessing game where the player will see six different colours swatches and one set of RGB (red, green, blue) values. The player has to click on a colour to guess which colour matches the shown RGB value. You will also code a reset button to change the colours and start a new game.


Preprints

PLOS encourages authors to post preprints to accelerate the dissemination of research and support authors who wish to share their work early and receive feedback before formal peer review. Deposition of manuscripts with preprint servers does not impact consideration of the manuscript at any PLOS journal.

Authors choosing bioRxiv may concurrently submit directly to PLOS journals through bioRxiv’s direct transfer to journal service.

Authors submitting manuscripts in the life sciences to PLOS Biology may opt-in to post their work on bioRxiv during the PLOS Biology full submission process.


NCERT Class 11 Biology Books in English PDF Download

NCERT Class 11 Biology Books are provided in PDF form so that students can access it at any time anywhere. Class 11 NCERT Biology Books are created by the best professors who are experts in Biology and have good knowledge in the subject.

NCERT Books for Class 11 Biology – English Medium

  • Chapter 1: The Living World
  • Chapter 2: Biological Classification
  • Chapter 3: Plant Kingdom
  • Chapter 4: Animal Kingdom
  • Chapter 5: Morphology of Flowering Plants
  • Chapter 6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants
  • Chapter 7: Structural Organisation in Animals
  • Chapter 8: Cell: The Unit of Life
  • Chapter 9: Biomolecules
  • Chapter 10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division
  • Chapter 11: Transport in Plants
  • Chapter 12: Mineral Nutrition
  • Chapter 13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
  • Chapter 14: Respiration in Plants
  • Chapter 15: Plant Growth and Development
  • Chapter 16: Digestion and Absorption
  • Chapter 17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases
  • Chapter 18: Body Fluids and Circulation
  • Chapter 19: Excretory Products and their Elimination
  • Chapter 20: Locomotion and Movement
  • Chapter 21: Neural Control and Coordination
  • Chapter 22: Chemical Coordination and Integration

NCERT Books for Class 11 Biology Hindi Medium

  • इकाई एक: जीव जगत में विविधता जीव जगत का वर्गीकरण वनस्पति जगत प्राणि जगत
    • अध्याय 1: जीव जगत
    • अध्याय 2: जीव जगत का वर्गीकरण
    • अध्याय 3: वनस्पति जगत
    • अध्याय 4: प्राणि जगत
    • अध्याय 5: पुष्पी पादपों की आकारिकी
    • अध्याय 6: पुष्पी पादपों का शरीर
    • अध्याय 7: प्राणियों में संरचनात्मक संगठन
    • अध्याय 8: कोशिका: जीवन की इकाई
    • अध्याय 9: जैव अणु
    • अध्याय 10: कोशिका चक्र और कोशिका विभाजन
    • अध्याय 11: पौधों में परिवहन
    • अध्याय 12: खनिज पोषण
    • अध्याय 13: उच्च पादपों में प्रकाश संश्लेषण
    • अध्याय 14: पादप में शवसन
    • अध्याय 15: पादप वृद्धि एवं परिवर्धन
    • अध्याय 16: पाचन एवं अवशोषण
    • अध्याय 17: शवासन और गैसों का विनिमय
    • अध्याय 18: शरीर द्रव तथा परिसंचरण
    • अध्याय 19: उत्सर्जी उत्पाद एवं उनका निष्कासन
    • अध्याय 20: गमन एवं संचलन
    • अध्याय 21: तंत्रकीय नियंत्रण एवं समन्वय
    • अध्याय 22: रासायनिक समन्वय तथा एकीकरण

    The NCERT syllabus mainly focuses on this book to make it student-friendly to make it useful for both the students and the competitive exam aspirants. The book covers a detailed Biology based on the syllabuses of various boards. NCERT Biology Books for Class 11 is perfectly compatible with almost every Indian education state and central boards.

    We hope that this detailed article on NCERT Books Class 11 Biology helps you in your preparation and you crack the Class 11 exams or competitive exams with excellent scores.


    New clues to origin of mysterious deadly antibiotic-resistant pathogen

    A new study is offering clues to the origins of a deadly antibiotic-resistant fungal pathogen that mysteriously appeared in hospitals around the world 10 years ago. The study chronicles the discovery of the pathogen for the first time in a remote natural environment and builds on a growing hypothesis that global warming may be prompting the evolution of these new fungal threats.

    About a decade ago a new fungal pathogen was detected in a Tokyo hospital. It was resistant to most known antibiotics and it was subsequently named Candida auris.

    This pathogen was detected nearly simultaneously in hospitals across several continents and presented a major mystery for scientists. What was driving the emergence of this novel pathogen in geographically separate sites at virtually the same time?

    A new study, published in the journal mBio, is offering clues to the origins of this deadly fungal pathogen. Researchers have, for the first time, discovered Candida auris in a natural environment.

    Anuradha Chowdhary, from the University of Delhi, has studied Candida auris for nearly as long as we have known it existed. Chowdhary was inspired to look for the pathogen in natural environments after an article hypothesized global warming to be responsible for its emergence.

    Candida auris was unusually tolerant of high temperatures and salinity, unlike its other close relatives. The hypothesis suggested particular coastal wetlands, with ecosystems very susceptible to global warming, could serve as unique ecological niches for this new kind of fungus to evolve.

    Exploring that hypothesis Chowdhary and a team of researchers collected a variety of environmental samples from eight different sites around the tropical Andaman Islands, in the Bay of Bengal. Candida auris isolates were detected across two separate sites, a beach high in human activity and a more isolated salt marsh wetland.

    “The isolates found in the area where there was human activity were more related to strains we see in the clinical setting,” says Chowdhary. “It might be coming from plants, or might be shed from human skin, which we know C. auris can colonize. We need to explore more environmental niches for the pathogen.”

    In a commentary accompanying the new study, the trio of researchers behind the original global warming hypothesis article call the findings a “landmark discovery.” The commentary suggests it is conceivable the samples found on the public beach could have been carried there by people from health-care environments, but the two samples found in the remote wetlands were much more interesting.

    The two isolates discovered in the wetlands were quite genetically distinct from each other. One of the strains in particular presented with a reduced heat tolerance compared to clinical strains of Candida auris. This suggests it may be a wild ancestor strain of the deadly pathogen found in hospitals, adding weight to the global warming emergence hypothesis.

    “This study takes the first step in toward understanding how pathogen survives in the wetland, but this is just one niche,” notes Chowdhary.

    The new research does not wholly validate the global warming emergence hypothesis, but it does at the very least suggest Candida auris existed as an environmental fungus in nature before it appeared in hospitals as a superbug a decade ago. More natural samples of the fungus will need to be uncovered and studied before a clearer insight can be garnered into how this pathogen developed.

    “Validating or refuting the global warming emergence hypothesis for C. auris will require a deeper exploration of the environmental isolates and closely related species,” the trio of researchers write in their supporting commentary. “Support for the hypothesis would consist of finding more C. auris isolates with borderline mammalian thermotolerance and perhaps that these isolates can be adapted to grow at higher temperatures through laboratory selection for growth at higher temperatures.”


    Vanderbilt University

    Sophomore :  I&aposve very much enjoyed my time here! My favorite thing about this school is the collaborative environment. You never feel alone here, and you&aposll find professors and friends who will support you through thick and thin. The liberal arts education is amazing because I&aposve been exposed to so many new topics that I would&aposve never studied otherwise. Although I&aposm here to get into medicine, I&aposve developed a love for studying French, and this school has helped me pursue my passions in both fields.
    Read 1,282 Reviews


    Contents

    The term was coined by Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould and population geneticist Richard Lewontin in their paper "The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Programme" (1979). [1] Evolutionary biologist Günter P. Wagner called the paper "the most influential structuralist manifesto". [2]

    In their paper, Gould and Lewontin employed the analogy of spandrels in Renaissance architecture: curved areas of masonry between arches supporting a dome that arise as a consequence of decisions about the shape of the arches and the base of the dome, rather than being designed for the artistic purposes for which they were often employed. The authors singled out properties like the necessary number of four spandrels and their specific three-dimensional shape. At the time, it was thought in the scientific community that everything an animal has developed that has a positive effect on that animal's fitness was due to natural selection or some adaptation. Gould and Lewontin proposed an alternative hypothesis: that due to adaptation and natural selection, byproducts are also formed. These byproducts of adaptations that had no real relative advantage to survival, they termed spandrels. In the biological sense, a "spandrel" might result from an architectural requirement inherent in the Bauplan of an organism, or from some other constraint on adaptive evolution.

    Evolutionary biology uses the term spandrel for features of an organism arising as byproducts, rather than adaptations, that have no clear benefit for the organism's fitness and survival. In response to the position that spandrels are just small, unimportant byproducts, Gould and Lewontin argue that "we must not recognize that small means unimportant. Spandrels can be as prominent as primary adaptations". A main example used by Gould and Lewontin is the human brain. Many secondary processes and actions come in addition to the main functions of the human brain. These secondary processes and thoughts can eventually turn into an adaptation or provide a fitness advantage to humans. Just because something is a secondary trait or byproduct of an adaptation does not mean it has no use.

    In 1982, Gould and Vrba introduced the term "exaptation" for characteristics that enhance fitness in their present role but were not built for that role by natural selection. [3] Exaptations may be divided into two subcategories: pre-adaptations and spandrels. Spandrels are characteristics that did not originate by the direct action of natural selection and that were later co-opted for a current use. Gould saw the term to be optimally suited for evolutionary biology for "the concept of a nonadaptive architectural by-product of definite and necessary form – a structure of particular size and shape that then becomes available for later and secondary utility". [4]

    Criticism of the term Edit

    Gould and Lewontin's proposal generated a large literature of critique, which Gould characterised as being grounded in two ways. [4] First, a terminological claim was offered that the "spandrels" of Basilica di San Marco were not spandrels at all, but rather were pendentives. Gould responded, "The term spandrel may be extended from its particular architectural use for two-dimensional byproducts to the generality of 'spaces left over', a definition that properly includes the San Marco pendentives." [4]

    Other critics, such as Daniel Dennett, further claimed (in Darwin's Dangerous Idea and elsewhere) that these pendentives are not merely architectural by-products as Gould and Lewontin supposed. Dennett argues that alternatives to pendentives, such as corbels or squinches, would have served equally well from an architectural standpoint, but pendentives were deliberately selected due to their aesthetic value. [5] Critics such as H. Allen Orr argued that Lewontin and Gould's oversight in this regard illustrates their underestimation of the pervasiveness of adaptations found in nature. [5] [6]

    Ian Kluge criticizes the whole subject of spandrels to be bogged down in a definitional debate. He argues it is not entirely clear what is and is not a spandrel. He also argues all examples of spandrels, pendentives, corbels and squinches do actually serve a function they are necessary to achieve something, but that necessity is exactly what epiphenomenalism denies. [7]

    Response to criticism Edit

    Gould responded that critics ignore that later selective value is a separate issue from origination as necessary consequences of structure he summarised his use of the term 'spandrel' in 1997: "Evolutionary biology needs such an explicit term for features arising as byproducts, rather than adaptations, whatever their subsequent exaptive utility . Causes of historical origin must always be separated from current utilities their conflation has seriously hampered the evolutionary analysis of form in the history of life." Gould cites the masculinized genitalia of female hyenas and the brooding chamber of some snails as examples of evolutionary spandrels. [8]

    Gould (1991) outlines some considerations for grounds for assigning or denying a structure the status of spandrel, pointing first to the fact that a structure originating as a spandrel through primary exaptation may have been further crafted for its current utility by a suite of secondary adaptations, thus the grounds of how well crafted a structure is for a function cannot be used as grounds for assigning or denying spandrel status. The nature of the current utility of a structure also does not provide a basis for assigning or denying spandrel status, nor does he see the origin of a structure as having any relationship to the extent or vitality of a later co-opted role, but places importance on the later evolutionary meaning of a structure. This seems to imply that the design and secondary utilization of spandrels may feed back into the evolutionary process and thus determine major features of the entire structure. The grounds Gould does accept to have validity in assigning or denying a structure the status of spandrel are historical order and comparative anatomy. [9] Historical order involves the use of historical evidence to determine which feature arose as a primary adaptation and which one appeared subsequently as a co-opted by-product. In the absence of historical evidence, inferences are drawn about the evolution of a structure through comparative anatomy. Evidence is obtained by comparing current examples of the structure in a cladistic context and by subsequently trying to determine a historical order from the distribution yielded by tabulation. [10]


    Watch the video: Biology Grade 12, unit 2: Ecology.. part1 in Amharic (September 2022).


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