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Deer: Predation or Starvation - Biology

Deer: Predation or Starvation - Biology


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Introduction

In 1970 the deer population of an island forest reserve was about 2000 animals. In 1971, ten wolves were flown into the island.

The results of this program are shown in the following table. The population change is the number of deer born minus the number of deer that died during that year. The herd population started at 2000 when this study began.

  • Calculate the number of deaths (predation + starvation).

  • To determine the deer population change, subtract the number of deaths from births (births - deaths), this can be a positive number, indicating growth, or a negative number which indicates a population decline.

  • Calculate the deer population by adding/subtracting the population change from the population the year before

  • The first row (1971) has been completed for you as an example.

  • Graph the deer and wolf populations as two lines (color and label)

YearWolf PopulationDeer BirthsPredationStarvationNumber of DeathsDeer Population ChangeDeer Population
1970starting population, data unknown for prior year2000
197110800400100500+3002300
197212920480240
1973161000640500
197422944880180
197528996112026
1976248369602
1977217888400
1978187667200
1979197807600
1980197907600

Analysis

  1. Describe what happened to the deer population between 1971 and 1980.
  2. When was the wolf population the highest? What is the relationship between the number of wolves and the number of deer?
  3. What do you think would have happened to the deer on the island had wolves NOT been introduced?
  4. Zero population growth occurs when a population has the same number of individuals entering the population (births) as those leaving the population (deaths). This results in very little change in the overall population numbers. In which year, was the deer population closest to ZPG? How do you know?
  5. Most biology textbooks describe that predators and prey exist in a balance. This "balance of nature" hypothesis has been criticized by some scientists because it suggests a relationship between predators and prey that is good and necessary. Opponents of this hypothesis propose the following questions:
  • Why is death by predators more natural or "right" then death by starvation?
  • How does one determine when an ecosystem is in "balance"?
  • Do predators really kill only the old and sick prey? What evidence is there for this statement?

    What is your opinion of the balance of nature hypothesis? Would the deer on the island be better off, worse off, or about the same without the wolves? Defend your position.


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Deer And Wolf Population Worksheet Answers

Graph the deer and wolf populations on a graph provided. A why was the deer population at 3000 deer in 1905 when the carrying capacity of the plateau is estimated to be 30000.

Using Population Graphs To Predict Ecosystem Changes Study Com

Year wolf population deer population deer offspring predation starvation deer population change 1971 10 2000 800 400 100 300 1972 12 2300 920 480 240 1973 16 2500 1000 640 500 1974 22 2360 944 880 180 1975 28 2244 996 1120 26 1976 24 2094 836 960 2 1977 21 1968 788 840 0 1978 18 1916 766 720 0 1979 19 1962 780 760 0 1980 19 1982.

Deer and wolf population worksheet answers. Showing top 8 worksheets in the category wolf population. Deer predation or starvation graph answerspdf free pdf download. Based on these lessons design a management plan on how you would have managed the deer herds in the past and how you would manage the herd in the future.

You will calculate the change in deer population and fill it in the data table. The results of this program are shown in the following table. Fill out the last column for each year the first has been calculated for you.

Moose wolf population graph answer keypdf free pdf download the population biology of isle royale wolves and mooseâ. Deer predation or starvation graph answerspdf free pdf download now. The population change is the number of deer born minus the number of deer that died during that year.

In this activity students will simulate the interactions between a predator population of gray wolves and a prey population of deer in a forest. It was hoped that natural predation would keep the deer population from becoming too large and also increase the deer quality. Some of the worksheets displayed are deer me a predatorprey simulation moose wolf population graph answer key deer predation or starvation lesson wolves of yellowstone wolves isle royale predator prey cycle work usage reading achievement classes lack of activity.

Year wolf population deer population deer offspring predation starvation deer population change. A predatorprey simulation introduction. After collecting the data the students will plot the data and then extend the graph to predict the populations for several more generations.

Year wolf population deer population deer offspring predation starvation deer population change. Fill out the last column for each year the first has been calculated for you. The population change is the number of deer born deer offspring minus the number of deer that died predation and starvation during that year.

Moose wolf population graph answer keypdf free pdf download now. The wildlife service decided to bring in natural predators to control the deer population. Biology 11 unit 3 assignment 2 deer predation or starvation worksheet free download as word doc doc docx pdf file pdf text file txt or read online for free.

Table shows changes in deer and wolf populations over time students graph data and draw conclusions about the success of the program. B why did the deer population decline in 1925.

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Deer: Predation or Starvation - Biology

Physical Description: White-tailed deer height at the shoulders is 90-105 cm, length 134-206 cm, weight (M) 90-135 kg (F) 67-112 kg. Whitetails are tan or reddish brown in the summer and grayish brown in the winter. The underside and throat are white, the tail brown above and white below. The males have antlers with main beam foreward and several unbranched tines. Fawns are reddish brown and white spotted *304*. Dental formula 0/3,0/1,3/3,3/3. *2188*

Reproduction: Data obtained by aging fetuses taken from whitetail does harvested in New Jersey indicates that rutting (breeding) peaks November 3-23 for northern adults November 17 - December 7 for northern fawns November 10-20 for southern adults and December 1-21 for southern fawns. Conception dates ranged from October to January. Estrus is about 24 hours and the estrus cycle is about 28 days. Gestation takes 200-210 days. *258*. The majority of fawns are dropped in the last week of May and the first two weeks of June. *12*

Male deer are generally incapable of breeding until their second fall, when more than one year old. Many female fawns on good range breed in their first year. *12*

Two year old females who failed to rear their first fawns bred later and conceived more males than did successful mothers of the same age. They remained within the matriarchal fold, which the authors speculate may have caused psychological and/or physiological stress, leading to hormonal imbalances and delayed breeding. The authors suggest that this is evolutionarily adaptive because it would decrease mother-daughter competition for fawn-rearing space. *16*

Behavior: Compilation of data from capture and marking studies in Hunterdon County(January 1970 to July 1976) indicate the main home range size of New Jersey deer to be one mile or less. In this study, the largest percentage of deer, 68.2% (122/179), were recovered within one mile of their original capture locations 26.8% (48) ranged from one to eight miles and 4.5% (8) ranged from 10 to 19 miles. One deer (.6%) was recovered 30 miles from the release site.

The general range size is the same for males and females however, there is a greater tendency for bucks to disperse long distances. November is the principal month for dispersal. This is the period of the rut, which may influence movement of bucks *12*. Males tend to remain in the area they occupied as yearlings. *162*

In an enclosed herd in Michigan, does established exclusive home ranges for rearing their young during the 1st 4 weeks, which may facilitate bond formation *17*. Maternal behavior traits vary with age, and success increases with age, especially where predation is an important source of fawn mortality. *17*

White-tailed deer are active during the period of subdued light *45*. The feeding rhythm is cyclic with activity every 4-6 hours at sunrise, midday, sunset and twice at night *266*. Summer coats molt to winter in August to October, winter coats molt to summer in late March *258*. The ecological metabolic rate per day is predicted to be lowest in late January and highest in August. *222*

From February through August bucks are generally in small groups, during other times, bucks are generally solitary. Large groups of deer may be observed feeding in open areas in spring and summer *162*. The feeding strategy is classified as concentrate selectors which select diets low in fiber, high in cell solubles, exhibit high fermentation rates with mainly amylolytic ruminal bacteria, participate in numerous short feeding periods, alternating with frequent rumination *165*. Birthing occurs in the home range of the female with little or no habitat selection. *258*

Use of a wintering site is a learned behavior passed on to fawns as they travel with their mothers during their first year. *34*

Bucks possess a large number of glands on their forehead which become active during the breeding season secretions are deposited on branches as they rub. Aromatic tree species are preferred for rubs. In Georgia, rub density was correlated with the number of bucks >2.5 years old and abundance of acorns. *35*

Limiting Factors: Limiting factors include predation, automobile accidents, diseases, parasites, starvation *2188*. Predation is mainly in the form of harassment by dogs. Fawns may be taken by bobcat *2188*, coyote, or black bear *75*. The relatively high reproductive rate of white-tailed deer makes population control by natural predators unlikely. *65*

Population Parameters: In the George Reserve deer herd, at low population sizes fawn females represented a significant factor in reproduction at higher populations, few fawns bred. The sex ratio, based on 110 embryos, was 1.19 males to 1 female. The ratio in fawns recruited was similar to the embryo ratio. There was a trend toward increased numbers of female fawns at low populations, and increased numbers of males at higher populations. The mean age of the population increased with size. *62*

Copyright © State of New Jersey, 1996-2005
Department of Environmental Protection
P. O. Box 402
Trenton, NJ 08625-0402


Supplemental Feeding Can Harm Deer

Feed sites congregate deer into unnaturally high densities. These high deer densities can:

  • attract predators and increase risk of death by coyotes or domestic dogs.
  • spread disease among deer.
  • cause aggression, wasting vital energy reserves and leading to injury or death.
  • reduce fat reserves as deer use energy traveling to and from the feed site.
  • result in over-browsing of local vegetation and ornamental plants.
  • deny access to food, because subordinate deer are kept away from feeding stations, and over-browsing by larger deer removes food available to fawns.
  • increase deer-vehicle collisions. Vehicle-killed deer near feed sites can outnumber those that would naturally succumb to winter mortality.

Background

Before 1905, the deer on the Kaibab Plateau were estimated to number about 4000. The average carrying capacity of the range was then estimated to be about 30,000 deer. On November 28th, 1906, President Theodore Roosevelt created the Grand Canyon National Game Preserve to protect the "finest deer herd in America."

Unfortunately, by this time the Kaibab forest area had already been overgrazed by sheep, cattle, and horses. Most of the tall grasses had been eliminated. The first step to protect the deer was to ban all hunting. In addition, in 1907, The Forest Service tried to exterminate the predators of the deer. Between 1907 and 1939, 816 mountain lions, 20 wolves, 7388 coyotes and more than 500 bobcats were killed.

Signs that the deer population was out of control began to appear as early as 1920 - the range was beginning to deteriorate rapidly. The Forest Service reduced the number of livestock grazing permits. By 1923, the deer were reported to be on the verge of starvation and the range conditions were described as "deplorable."

The Kaibab Deer Investigating Committee recommended that all livestock not owned by local residents be removed immediately from the range and that the number of deer be cut in half as quickly as possible. Hunting was reopened, and during the fall of 1924, 675 deer were killed by hunters. However, these deer represented only one-tenth the number of deer that had been born that spring. Over the next two winters, it is estimated that 60,000 deer starved to death.

Today, the Arizona Game Commission carefully manages the Kaibab area with regulations geared to specific local needs. Hunting permits are issued to keep the deer in balance with their range. Predators are protected to help keep herds in balance with food supplies. Tragic winter losses can be checked by keeping the number of deer near the carrying capacity of the range.

1. Graph the deer population data. Place time on the X axis and "number of deer" on the Y axis


Predator And Prey Worksheet

Predator and prey worksheet. See all for age 8 10. Some of the worksheets for this concept are predator and prey predator prey relationship misp predator prey work 1 food relationships deer predation or starvation lab predation or starvation the predator prey equations grade 5 title food chain predator prey jennifer lynn deer predation or starvation lesson. Animals prey and pradtors other contents.

Doc 208 5 kb examine the effects of population size on the organisms in an ecosystem through the predator and prey relationship of wolves and elk. Predator barn owl prey shrew 3. Predator and prey displaying top 8 worksheets found for predator and prey.

By scholastic parents staff. Prey is an animal that is hunted and eaten for food. Predator prey relationships other contents.

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Message download the pdf. Doc 208 5 kb examine the effects of population size on the organisms in an ecosystem through the predator and prey relationship of wolves and elk. After learning about a predator prey relationship in the wild students can use these organizers as a pre writing exercise for informational paragraph writing.

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Malnutrition, hunger and thirst in wild animals

This text is part of a series examining the conditions of animals living in the wild. For more texts examining the ways animals in the wild suffer and die, see our main page on the situation of animals in the wild. For information on how we can help animals, see our page on providing for the basic needs of animals in the wild.

The most common cause of starvation is simply being born. Most species of animal reproduce in very high numbers. Arthropods and fishes, for example, can lay from thousands to millions of eggs during their lifetime. If most of these animals survived, then animal populations would grow rapidly and exponentially. This is not what happens, however – animal populations tend to stay relatively stable across generations. In order for a population to remain stable, on average only one offspring per parent can survive to adulthood. The rest will die. Some eggs don’t hatch, some animals are killed by predators, siblings, or even parents shortly after birth, but one of the most common forms of death is by starvation just after being born or hatched.

Sometimes the effects of hunger and malnutrition are reduced because malnourished females do not get pregnant, so fewer animals are born who would only starve to death. However, this does not eliminate the effects that hunger has on individuals in these populations. Animals normally reproduce and bring to life huge numbers of new sentient beings, many more than would keep the number of animals in the population stable. The amount of food available for these newborn animals is a key factor in determining how many of them survive. Hence, food shortage is a continual source of suffering for wild animals, particularly in the winter and early spring when food is scarcer.

Other causes of starvation and malnutrition in animals living in the wild

For those who do survive, there are multiple challenges and dangers that can easily lead to malnutrition, starvation, and thirst.

Parents are at greater risk of starvation just before and after mating, when their energy levels and fat stores drop. Babies are also more vulnerable, even in species that have few children and care for their young. Young mammals prematurely separated from their mothers rarely find the food they need to survive. When food is scarce, a mother may starve herself in an effort to nourish her children. Alternatively, she may reject her children, refusing to feed them or let them suckle. 1 Sometimes, malnourished mothers are unable to produce milk. In these circumstances, babies either starve in the nest or den or are abandoned, as is often seen among squirrels.

Non-mammals can be at even greater risk of starvation during mating and parenthood, as their fat reserves drop and their access to food is severely restricted. Salmon, for instance, endure an exhausting journey upriver to their breeding grounds, swimming against the current and leaping up waterfalls. Throughout this period, they do not eat. Some survive to make the journey again in subsequent years, but many do not, expending the last of their energy to reproduce, and dying shortly thereafter.

Emperor penguins are another example. After a months-long journey on foot over the Antarctic ice, female penguins lay an egg and leave it in the care of the father. Having lost a third of her body weight, the female sets off on a two month search for food, leaving her mate to keep the egg warm. By the time she returns and he leaves on his own trip for food, the male has not eaten for four months and has probably lost half his body weight. 2 These perilous conditions endanger the young as well as the parents, because penguin chicks will starve if they don’t receive enough food from their parents. When they are fledglings, exhaustion caused by malnutrition can deplete the energy they need to forage effectively on their own, and this can lead to starvation. During a bad year, one colony of 40,000 penguins lost all but two chicks. 3

Ecological disruptions and natural disasters can devastate large percentages of populations in a short period, destroying or contaminating food supplies, soil, and water for many years, leading to starvation and malnutrition. Animals also face intermittent and seasonal periods of starvation as their habitats undergo changes. For example, deers don’t hibernate or migrate, and routinely starve in large numbers every winter due to scarcity of shelter and food. 4 In some areas, more than half a population of sea turtles can die during the winter when they become stunned by the cold and too disoriented to eat. 5

Under food stress, mammals, birds, and fishes first shed accumulated stores of fat and then begin consuming muscle mass as an emergency source of energy, which can be debilitating and eventually becomes fatal as organs atrophy. 6 Migration and dormancy are common adaptive responses, but they have their own dangers. Dormant animals are still vulnerable to starvation as well as disease and stress from heat or cold. Migration takes a great deal of energy, and its success often depends on how favorable the weather and food conditions were in the spring and summer prior to migration.

Invertebrates employ similar strategies to cope with starvation periods, and many invertebrates, including insects, have evolved to survive for months or even years without food. Others migrate, but their ability to take off and to fly can be reduced by physical stress from hunger and malnutrition, leading to death. Other insects resort to cannibalism when food is scarce. 7

Throughout the animal kingdom, lack of sources of energy is common. During times of food scarcity, the animals who starve first are those with lower fat stores, such as juveniles, animals who have lost energy due to breeding, animals too weak to migrate, and those with lower social status.

Even in the presence of abundant food, disease and injury can prevent animals from accessing the resources they need, causing them to starve. For example, abalones can die of starvation due to withering abalone syndrome. The disease is caused by bacteria that consume the digestive tract lining of infected animals. This can destroy the digestive enzymes, preventing the abalone from being able to digest food. To survive, the abalone consumes their own body mass. This causes a loss of muscle, resulting in a “withered” appearance. Infected animals will starve to death or be eaten by predators in their weakened state. 8 Birds can starve if their beaks are injured badly enough that they can’t eat.

In some cases, the trouble is as simple as having bad teeth: aging elephants eventually become unable to chew as their teeth are gradually worn down by their tough diets, and squirrels who fail to find sufficiently hard food to file down their teeth find themselves with incisors so long and sharp that they cannot get them around new food items. In either event, the result is starvation and death for the affected animal.

Starvation is a common cause of death for animals who survive to old age. At some point, animals’ bodies simply wear out and they are no longer able to forage. Some insects invest little energy into maintenance after reaching maturity. Crucial body parts simply run down until an animal is unable to eat or cannot move. Wings and mouth parts can start to fall apart, muscles atrophy, joints wear out, and digestive systems can lose the ability to repair themselves. 9 If aging animals don’t starve on their own, conspecifics might attack them or drive them away from the safety and food security provided by a group. Aging social insects like ants and bees may leave their groups voluntarily, be intentionally starved, or be chased out of their groups when they are no longer able to contribute. 10

Food scarcity is worsened by the simultaneous occurrence of hunger and predation. How are hunger and predation related? First, prey animals naturally try to avoid predators as much as possible. They try to find food in places where the risks that predators pose to them are lower. For example, they will look for food in wooded areas where they can hide instead of in open plains where predators can more easily see them. When there is not enough food in the areas where they hide, they face hunger and malnutrition. When malnutrition becomes critical, they start leaving safer areas, increasing their vulnerability to predators. This leads to a rise in the number of deaths due to predation. So, predation and malnutrition combine to cause suffering and death within animal populations. The relationship between food availability and predation has been studied in detail for animals of many species. 11

Thirst is another major contributor to high mortality rates in wild animals. There are two fundamental ways the lack of water causes wild animals to suffer and often to die painfully. First, during times of drought, there are not enough resources available for a large population of animals, so many of them die of thirst. 12 Second, as with malnutrition, some animals threatened by predators show a reluctance to seek water because of the risk posed by predators. They hide in safe places where there is little or no water.

Eventually, thirst forces animals to take many risks to satisfy their need for water. 13 When they finally leave their hiding places, they are so debilitated that they become easy prey at watering-holes or in open fields. Others stay in their hiding places until they are so dehydrated that they cannot move. Thus, they are unable to reach water and they die of thirst. 14

Extreme thirst is a frightening experience. It produces a sense of exhaustion caused by reduced blood volume, and the body attempts to compensate for the lack of water by raising the respiratory and heart rates. Next comes dizziness and collapse, and ultimately death. 15

The combination of thirst and starvation accelerates the process of dehydration that culminates in death. Many animals who live in arid conditions continue to eat as a survival strategy because there are some fluids in food. This allows animals to remain alive for longer. 16 Without the availability of water directly or indirectly through food, many animals do not survive harsh climates.

Diseases can also lead to dehydration. For example, frogs can be infected by the chytrid fungus which thickens their skin so much that they can’t absorb water and essential nutrients. Because frogs primarily hydrate themselves through their skin, this is usually deadly if untreated. A treatment exists and the infection is simple to cure, but there is not yet a way to treat large populations of frogs in the wild. 17 The disease can be further complicated by other factors such as heat stress. Heat stress can worsen the condition of a dehydrated frog, even at temperatures that do not harm them when they are hydrated. 18

At times, authorities respond to droughts or lack of food in ways that harm the animals who are already at risk. Sometimes measures are approved to deliberately starve animals. This happens, for example, in the case of urban pigeons. Another instance occurred in 2010 in Kenya, when a drought caused the deaths of 80% of the animals typically preyed upon by lions in the Amboseli National Park. Using helicopters and trucks, humans captured 7000 zebras and wildebeests from other areas and transported them to the park to “serve” as live food for starving lions. Humans living there were interested in the presence of lions in the park because of the economic benefit of tourism. 19

You can learn about how we can help on our page Providing for the basic needs of animals.

Further readings

Bright, J. L. & Hervert, J. J. (2005) “Adult and fawn mortality of Sonoran pronghorn”, Wildlife Society Bulletin, 33, pp. 43-50.

Creel, S. & Christianson, D. (2009) “Wolf presence and increased willow consumption by Yellowstone elk: Implications for trophic cascades”, Ecology, 90, pp. 2454-2466.

Hansen, B. B. Aanes, R. Herfindal, I. Kohler, J. & Sæther, B.-E. (2011) “Climate, icing, and wild arctic reindeer: Past relationships and future prospects”, Ecology, 92, pp. 1917-1923.

Holmes, J. C. (1995) “Population regulation: A dynamic complex of interactions”, Wildlife Research, 22, pp. 11-19.

Huitu, O. Koivula, M. Korpimäki, E. Klemola, T. & Norrdahl, K. (2003) “Winter food supply limits growth of northern vale populations in the absence of predation”, Ecology, 84, pp. 2108-2118.

Indiana Wildlife Disease News (2009) “Starvation and malnutrition in wildlife”, Indiana Wildlife Disease News, 4 (1), pp. 1-3 [accessed on 22 October 2014].

Jędrzejewski, W. Schmidt, K. Theuerkauf, J. Jędrzejewska, B. Selva, N. Zub, K. & Szymura, L. (2002) “Kill rates and predation by wolves on ungulate populations in Białowieża Primeval Forest (Poland)”, Ecology, 83, pp. 1341-1356.

Kirkwood, J. K. (1996) “Nutrition of captive and free-living wild animals”, in Kelly, N. C. & Wills, J. M. (eds.) Manual of companion animal nutrition & feeding, Ames: British Small Animal Veterinary Association, pp. 235-243.

Lochmiller, R. L. (1996) “Immunocompetence and animal population regulation”, Oikos, 76, pp. 594-602.

McCue, M. D. (2010) “Starvation physiology: Reviewing the different strategies animals use to survive a common challenge”, Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology – A Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 156, pp. 1-18.

Messier, F. & Crête, M. (1985) “Moose-wolf dynamics and the natural regulation of moose populations”, Oecologia, 65, pp. 503-512.

Mykytowycz, R. (1961) “Social behavior of an experimental colony of wild rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus (L.) IV. Conclusion: Outbreak of myxomatosis, third breeding season, and starvation”, CSIRO Wildlife Research, 6, pp. 142-155.

Okoro, O. R. Ogugua, V. E. & Joshua, P. E. (2011) “Effect of duration of starvation on lipid profile in albino rats”, Nature and Science, 9 (7), pp. 1-13 [accessed on 13 January 2013].

Punch, P. I. (2001) “A retrospective study of the success of medical and surgical treatment of wild Australian raptors”, Australian Veterinary Journal, 79, pp. 747-752.

Robbins, C. T. (1983) Wildlife feeding and nutrition, Orlando: Academic Press.

de Roos, A. M. Galic, N. & Heesterbeek, H. (2009) “How resource competition shapes individual life history for nonplastic growth: ungulates in seasonal food environments”, Ecology, 90, pp. 945-960.

Tomasik, B. (2016) “How painful is death from starvation or dehydration?”, Essays on Reducing Suffering, 23 Feb [accessed on 10 April 2016].

Wobeser, G. A. (2005) Essentials of disease in wild animals, New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Notes

1 Michigan Department of Natural Resources (2019) “Malnutrition and starvation”, Michigan.gov [accessed on 23 December 2019].

2 Halsey, L. (2018) “A matter of life and… energy”, The Biologist, 65 (2), pp. 18-21.

4 Wooster, C. (2003) “What happens to deer during a tough winter?”, Northern Woodlands, February 2 [accessed on 23 December 2019].

6 Michigan Department of Natural Resources (2019) “Malnutrition and starvation”, op. cit.

7 See for instance: Scharf, I. (2016) “The multifaceted effects of starvation on arthropod behavior”, Animal Behaviour, 119, pp. 37-48. Zhang, D.-W. Xiao, Z.-J. Zeng, B.-P. Li, K. & Tang, Y.-L. (2019) “Insect behavior and physiological adaptation mechanisms under starvation stress”, Frontiers in Physiology, 10 [accessed on 19 June 2019].

8 Ben-Horin, T. Lenihan, H. S. Lafferty, K. D. (2013) “Variable intertidal temperature explains why disease endangers black abalone”, Ecology, 94, pp. 161-168. Friedman, C. S. Biggs, W. Shields, J. D. & Hedrick, R. (2002) “Transmission of withering syndrome in black abalone, Haliotis cracherodii leach”, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, 21, pp. 817-824 [accessed on 21 August 2019].

9 Dirks, J.-H. Parle, E. & Taylor, D. (2013) “Fatigue of insect cuticle”, Journal of Experimental Biology, 216, pp. 1924-1927 [accessed on 24 October 2019]. O’Neill, M. DeLandro, D. & Taylor, D. 2019 “Age-related responses to injury and repair in insect cuticle”, Journal of Experimental Biology, 222 [accessed on 24 October 2019] Remolina, S. C. Hafez, D. M. Robinson, G. E. & Hughes, K. A. (2007) “Senescence in the worker honey bee Apis mellifera”, Journal of Insect Physiology, 53, pp. 1027-1033 [accessed on 24 October 2019].

10 Ridgel, A. L. Ritzmann, R. E. & Schaefer, P. L. (2003) “Effects of aging on behavior and leg kinematics during locomotion in two species of cockroach”, Journal of Experimental Biology, 206, pp. 4453-4465 [accessed on 23 June 2019]. Langstroth, L. L. (2008 [1853]) Langstroth on the hive and the honey-bee: A bee keeper’s manual, Salt Lake City: Project Gutenberg [accessed 23 June 2019].

11 See for example: Anholt, B. R. & Werner, E. E. (1995) “Interaction between food availability and predation mortality mediated by adaptive behavior”, Ecology, 76, pp. 2230-2234 McNamara, J. M. & Houston, A. I. (1987) “Starvation and predation as factors limiting population size”, Ecology, 68, pp. 1515-1519 Sinclair, A. R. E. & Arcese, P. (1995) “Population consequences of predation-sensitive foraging: The Serengeti wildebeest”, Ecology, 76, pp. 882-891 Anholt, B. R. & Werner, E. E. (1998) “Predictable changes in predation mortality as a consequence of changes in food availability and predation risk”, Evolutionary Ecology, 12, pp. 729-738 Sweitzer, R. A. (1996) “Predation or starvation: Consequences of foraging decisions by porcupines (Erethizon dorsatum)”, Journal of Mammalogy, 77, pp. 1068-1077 [accessed on 2 December 2019] Hik, D. S. (1995) “Does risk of predation influence population dynamics? Evidence from cyclic decline of snowshoe hares”, Wildlife Research, 22, pp. 115-129 [accessed on 14 December 2019] Anholt, B. R. Werner, E. & Skelly, D. K. (2000) “Effect of food and predators on the activity of four larval ranid frogs”, Ecology, 81, pp. 3509-3521.

12 Nair, R. M. (2004) “Hunger and thirst haunt wildlife”, The Hindu, March 26 [accessed on 9 March 2013].

13 Sansom, A. Lind, J. & Cresswell, W. (2009) “Individual behavior and survival: The roles of predator avoidance, foraging success, and vigilance”, Behavioral Ecology, 20, pp. 1168-1174 [accessed on 18 June 2019]. Clinchy, M. Sheriff, M. J. & Zanette, L. Y. (2013) “Predator‐induced stress and the ecology of fear”, Functional Ecology, 27, pp. 56-65 [accessed on 18 June 2019].

14 TNN (2010) “Starvation, thirst kill many antelope in Jodhpur”, The Times of India, Jul 4 [accessed on 12 December 2019].

15 Gregory, N. G. (2004) Physiology and behaviour of animal suffering, Ames: Blackwell, p. 83.

17 California Academy of Sciences (2012) ”Frog dehydration”, Science News, California Academy of Sciences, April 26 [accessed on 18 June 2019].

18 Beuchat, C. A Pough, F. H. & Stewart, M. M. (1984) “Response to simultaneous dehydration and thermal stress in three species of Puerto Rican frogs”, Journal of Comparative Physiology B: Biochemical, Systems, and Environmental Physiology, 154, pp. 579-585.

19 Kurczy, S. (2010) “Why is Kenya moving 7,000 zebras and wildebeest?”, The Christian Science Monitor, February 10 [accessed on 7 October 2019].


Watch the video: Deer Predation or Starvation (December 2022).