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Chlamydomonas, Chlorella are present in Kingdom Protista as well as Plantae under division algae.
In which kingdom they correctly belong to?
It is generally accepted now that Chlorophyta are Plantae (see here). They are more closely related to plants than any other group of organism. Protist is a kind of basket term for any eukaryotic unicellular organism that is not an animal, fungi or a plant which is a rather exclusionary definition.
Personally, I think the kingdoms are pretty 'macro' oriented and do not really capture the diversity well of unicellular organisms. If you want to see a bunch of elderly scientist shout at each other over what appear to be arbitrary distinctions, I highly recommend attending the taxonomy session of any unicellular conference
Haeckel’s Three kingdom classification system – Features,Limitation
Haeckel was a zoologist, an accomplished artist and illustrator, and later a professor of comparative anatomy. Although Haeckel’s ideas are important to the history of evolutionary theory, and although he was a competent invertebrate anatomist most famous for his work on radiolaria, many speculative concepts that he championed are now considered incorrect.
For example, Haeckel described and named hypothetical ancestral microorganisms that have never been found.
Features of Haeckel’s Three kingdom classification system
Two kingdom classification system does not clarify the whole distribution of organism into two groups because some organism has a character which resembles animals as well as plants, for example, Euglena have both types of character they have chlorophyll for the process of photosynthesis which is a plant character and as an animal which is included in kingdom Animalia, another example is Chlamydomonas, volvox, etc which show the character of plants.
5 Kingdom Classification System
The microbes bacteria etc. are included the Kingdom Monera.
Feature of kingdom Monera
- Bacteria are present all over the place and they are infinitesimal in nature.
- They have a cell divider and are prokaryotic.
- The cell divider is framed of amino acids and polysaccharides.
- Bacteria can be heterotrophic and autotrophic.
- The heterotrophic microscopic organisms can be parasitic or saprophytic.
- The autotrophic microbes can be chemosynthetic or photosynthetic.
Types of Monerans
Bacteria can be classified into four types based on their shape:
- Coccus (pl.: cocci)- These bacteria are spherical in shape.
- Bacillus (pl.: bacilli) – These bacteria are rod-shaped,
- Vibrium (pl.: vibrio) – These bacteria are comma-shaped bacteria
- Spirillum (pl.: spirilla)- These bacteria are spiral-shaped bacteria
Monera has since been divided into Archaebacteria and Eubacteria.
character of Protista
Protista has the accompanying significant highlights:
- They are unicellular and eukaryotic living beings.
- Some of them have cilia or flagella for mobility.
- Sexual proliferation is by a procedure of cell combination and zygote arrangement.
Sub-groups of Protista
Kingdom Protista is categorized into subsequent groups:
- Chrysophytes: The golden algae (desmids) and diatoms fall under this group. They are found in marine and freshwater habitats.
- Dinoflagellates: They are usually photosynthetic and marine. The colour they appear is dependent on the key pigments in their cells they appear red, blue, brown, green or yellow.
- Euglenoids: Most of them live in freshwater habitation in motionless water. The cell wall is absent in them, instead, there is a protein-rich layer called pellicle.
- Slime Moulds: These are saprophytic. The body moves along putrefying leaves and twigs and nourishes itself on organic material. Under favourable surroundings, they form an accumulation and were called Plasmodial slime moulds.
- Protozoans: They are heterotrophs and survive either as parasites or predators.
- 1. Is it green or does it have green parts?
- Yes - go to 2
- No - go to 3
- Single-celled? go to 6
- Multicellular? Plantae. Look for cell walls, internal structure. In the compound microscope you might be able to see chloroplasts.
- Single-celled - go to 4
- Multicellular (Look for complex or branching structure, appendages) - go to 5
- Yes - Protista. You should be able to see at least a nucleus and/or contractile vacuole, and a definite shape. Movement should be present, using cilia, flagella, or amoeboid motion. Cilia or flagella may be difficult to see.
- No - Monera. Should be quite small. May be shaped like short dashes (rods), small dots (cocci), or curved or spiral shaped. The largest them that is commonly found in freshwater is called Spirillum volutans. It is spiral shaped, and can be nearly a millimeter long. Except for Spirillum, it is very difficult to see Monerans except in a compound microscope with special lighting.
- Yes - Animalia. Movement can be by cilia, flagella, or complex, involving parts that contract. Structure should be complex. Feeding activity may be obvious.
- No - Fungus. Should be branched, colorless filaments. May have some kind of fruiting body (mushrooms are a fungus, don't forget). Usually attached to some piece of decaying matter - may form a fuzzy coating on or around an object. In water, some bacterial infections of fish and other animals may be mistaken for a fungus.
Remember, the more you observe the organism, the more sure you can be. Many living things have stages that make them resemble members of another kingdom.
Welcome to the Living World
- The cell contains a well-defined nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. Some have flagella or cilia.
- Protists are primarily aquatic.
- It is a link with plants, animals and fungi.
- They reproduce asexually and sexually (cell fusion and zygote formation).
- Protista includes Chrysophytes, Dianoflagellates, Euglenoids, Slime moulds and Protozoans.
- Found in fresh water and marine environments.
- Microscopic and float passively in water currents (plankton).
- Most of them are photosynthetic.
- It includes diatoms & golden algae (desmids).
- Diatoms: They have siliceous cell walls forming two thin overlapping shells, which fit together as in a soap box. The cell wall deposit of diatoms over billions of years in their habitat is known as ‘diatomaceous earth’. This is used in polishing, filtration of oils and syrups.
- Diatoms are the chief ‘producers’ in the oceans.
- Mostly marine and photosynthetic.
- They appear yellow, green, brown, blue or red based on the main pigments present in their cells.
- The cell wall has stiff cellulose plates on the outer surface.
- Most of them have 2 flagella one lies longitudinally and the other transversely in a furrow between the wall plates.
- Red dinoflagellates (E.g. Gonyaulax) undergo rapid multiplication so that the sea appears red (red tides). They release toxins that kill marine animals like fishes.
- Mainly fresh water organisms found in stagnant water.
- Instead of a cell wall, they have a protein rich layer called pellicle. It makes their body flexible.
- They have two flagella, a short and a long one.
- They are photosynthetic in the presence of sunlight. In the absence of sunlight, they behave like heterotrophs by predating on smaller organisms.
- The pigments are identical to those in higher plants.
- They are saprophytic protists.
- The body moves along decaying twigs and leaves engulfing organic material.
- Under suitable conditions, they form an aggregation called plasmodium. It may spread over several feet.
- Under unfavourable conditions, plasmodium differentiates and forms fruiting bodies bearing spores at their tips. Spores have true walls. They are highly resistant and survive for many years. Spores are dispersed by air.
Protists - Examples and Characteristics of Protists
_____ cells are responsible for the formation of osteoblasts .
_____ is a bone that constitute the axial skeleton .
Which of the following is false concerning cartilages and bones ?
A diagram showing the movement of energy through a food chain is called a _____.
Which of the following is NOT a part of the wrist bones (or carpal bones )?
The statements below are true concerning arteries except _____.
A. The arterial wall has 4 layers
B. Tunica Adventitia is the outermost layer of an artery
C. Aorta is the largest artery in the human body
D. Pulmunary artery conveys deoxygenated blood
E. Internal bleeding will occur when a deeply located artery is broken
F. Arterial vascular disorders are worsened in people with diabetes and renal failure
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We know for sure that plants and animals are living organisms because they fulfill all the basic characteristics necessary for life.
Below are the basic characteristics of life:
Note: Living organisms goes beyond plants and animals.
There are millions of organisms that are neither plant nor animals. Generally, the classification of organisms into kingdoms have given more insight about life. (Recall that Biology is the study of life).
As a matter of fact, anything that has life must belong to a kingdom.
Below are the kingdoms with regards to the classification of living organisms:
The Swedish Botanist Carolus Linnaeus (1701 - 1778) developed the modern method of classification (called taxonomy or systematics as listed above.
What are Protists?
Protists are neither plants nor animals nor fungi nor bacteria they are simply protists.
An organism belonging to kingdom protista is referred to as a protist just as those belonging to kingdom plantae are called plants.
All protists are eukaryotic organisms. Being eukaryotic imply that their cell structure has a nucleus bordered by a membrane. They also have organelles in their cytoplasm.
Generally, protists live in an aquatic or fluidly or moist habitat.
Please read on Swamp Forests and Deserts here.
All protists do not share similar characteristics. This is due to the fact that some are animal-like. This means that they have animal like features for instance, their cells have a cell membrane. (All animals have a cell membrane).
Conversely, others are plant-like in the sense that they have cell wall and chloroplast thus can manufacture their own food. (All plants have cell wall in addition to a cell membrane).
A few protists are fungi-like because they reproduce by forming spores.
Generally, all protists are commonly grouped together because they do not particularly fit into any other kingdom.
Examples of protists includes: amoeba, paramecium, euglena, chlamydomonas, plasmodium, kelp, slime molds and water molds.
Note: Some protists are single celled (unicellular) while others are colonial (form colonies) and multicellular (made up of more than one cell).
In terms of size, a few protist can be very large, for instance kelp while others are microscopic, for instance, amoeba
Protist can can be free-living (for example, amoeba) or parasitic (for example, plasmodium). A few are saprophytic.
Below is a diagram showing various Protists.
Characteristics of Protists
This is the ability of an organism to move from one point to another.
Although some protists are non-motile (cannot move from one point to another), others exhibit locomotion via a variety of locomotary organelles.
Below are some protists and their locomotary organelles:
Examples of non-motile protist are plasmodium and Toxoplasma gondii.
Note: Slime mold and water mold are protists that exhibit little movement.
Certain protists are photosynthetic autotrophs (that is, they can manufacture food by utilizing the energy from sunlight). Examples are euglena and algae.
Conversely, some are heterotrophic (that is, they cannot produce their own food and hence rely on readymade food). Examples are amoeba and paramecium.
The protist plasmodium is the causative agent for malaria. (It is sometimes referred to as the malaria parasite). It undergoes a parasitic kind of nutrition which is a type of heterotrophic mode of nutrition.
Note: Some protists are both autotrophic and heterotrophic. Euglena is an example.
3. Cell Structure
Most are unicellular. Amoeba, paramecium, euglena, chlamydomonas and plasmodium are examples of unicelluler protist.
A few protists are multicellular for example, kelp, slime molds and algae.
Reproduction is typically asexual but sometimes, sexual reproduction does occur.
Binary fission is a form of asexual reproduction that occurs in Amoeba.
Please read on Reproduction in Plants here.
Plasmodium falciparum may undergo sexual reproduction at some stages in it's life cycle.
They generally live in an aquatic habitat. This is usually a fresh water in most cases. Fresh water habitat include ponds, lakes, rivers and streams.
Note: Seas and Oceans are salt water. Any water body that isn't a sea or an ocean is much likely to be a fresh water.
6. They are Eukaryotic organisms
Being eukaryotic implies that their cell structure have a well defined nucleus and cell membrane.
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- The Mycoplasma are organisms that completely lack a cell wall.
- They are the smallest living cells known and can survive without oxygen.
- Many mycoplasma are pathogenic in animals and plants.
- All single-celled eukaryotes are placed under Protista [Prokaryotic Cells vs. Eukaryotic Cells].
- Boundaries of this kingdom are not well defined. This kingdom forms a link with the others dealing with plants, animals and fungi.
- In this group we include Chrysophytes, Dinoflagellates, Euglenoids, Slime moulds and Protozoans. Examples are unicellular algae, diatoms and protozoans.
- Their mode of nutrition can be autotrophic or heterotrophic.
- Members of Protista are primarily aquatic. Some have flagella or cilia that helps in movement.
- Protists reproduce asexually and sexually by a process involving cell fusion and zygote formation.
29 thoughts on &ldquo The Living World: Biological Classification – MCQs Quiz – 2 &rdquo
The question no. 2 needs a correction – the new systematics or neo-systematics is also known as biosystametics and not as cladistics.. Cladistics is another name of phylogenetic classification and not for neosystematics.
In 5 kingdom classification …chlamydomonas and chlorella are included in plantae and not in protists….
in five kingdom classification chlamydomonas and chlorella are included in protista not in plantae (see 11th biology ncert pg no. 18 )
its true these are in protists uh hv read it carefully. its a very popular question and in previos exam questions, go through its……
No vignesh…. they are included in protista as they are unicellular eukaryotes.
NEW SYSTEMATICS also known as BIOSYSTEMATICS……….?
Chlamydomonas and Chlorella have been included in PLANTAE (PLANT KINGDOM )
YES VIKAS NEW SYSTEMATICS WAS INTRODUCED BY HUXELY IN 1940 AND ALSO KNOWN AS BIOSYSTEMATICS
CHALMYDOMONAS AND CHOLRELLA ARE ALGAE AND BELONG TO KINGDOM PLANTAE
No they belong to protista. Well that given in ncert
I like The questions And a Lot of queries were cleared while answering them but I have a question If anyone Can help me out?
. Is CHLORELLA not an algae (kindom Plante)?
Until recently, all photosynthetic eukaryotes were considered members of the kingdom Plantae. The brown, red, and gold algae, however, have been reassigned to the Protista kingdom. This is because apart from their ability to capture light energy and fix CO2, they lack many structural and biochemical traits that distinguish plants from protists. The position of green algae is more ambiguous. Green algae contain the same carotenoids and chlorophyll a and b as land plants, whereas other algae have different accessory pigments and types of chlorophyll molecules in addition to chlorophyll a. Both green algae and land plants also store carbohydrates as starch. Cells in green algae divide along cell plates called phragmoplasts, and their cell walls are layered in the same manner as the cell walls of embryophytes. Consequently, land plants and closely related green algae are now part of a new monophyletic group called Streptophyta .
The remaining green algae, which belong to a group called Chlorophyta, include more than 7000 different species that live in fresh or brackish water, in seawater, or in snow patches. A few green algae even survive on soil, provided it is covered by a thin film of moisture in which they can live. Periodic dry spells provide a selective advantage to algae that can survive water stress. Some green algae may already be familiar, in particular Spirogyra and desmids. Their cells contain chloroplasts that display a dizzying variety of shapes, and their cell walls contain cellulose, as do land plants. Some green algae are single cells, such as Chlorella and Chlamydomonas, which adds to the ambiguity of green algae classification, because plants are multicellular. Other algae, like Ulva (commonly called sea lettuce), form colonies (Figure (PageIndex<1>)).
Figure (PageIndex<1>): Chlorophyta include (a) Spirogyra, (b) desmids, (c) Chlamydomonas, and (d) Ulva. Desmids and Chlamydomonas are single-celled organisms, Spirogyra forms chains of cells, and Ulva forms colonies resembling leaves (credit b: modification of work by Derek Keats credit c: modification of work by Dartmouth Electron Microscope Facility, Dartmouth College credit d: modification of work by Holger Krisp scale-bar data from Matt Russell)
Chlamydomanas are present in Kingdom Protista or Plantae? - Biology
Kingdom Plantae includes all organisms which are truly multicellular and photosynthetic exept for algal protists. They are complex autotrophs preparing food material by photosynthesis for themselves as well as for rest of the other organisms. Hence, they are the chief producers of the world. They are found in all the types of environment: aquatic algae, amphibian mosses, and terrestrial ferns and seed-bearing plants.
The plantae are distinguished by the following characters:
(1) They are multicellular organisms, adapted to carry on photosynthesis, hence autotrophic.
(2) Presence of cell wall of true cellulose, enclosing cytoplasm with large vacuole.
(3) They perform photosynthesis due to chlorophyll present in chloroplasts.
(4) They may show alternation of sexual and asexual generations in life-cycle.
(5) They are non-motile, without definite size and shape.
(6) Growth in these plants is intermittent.
They are classified as follows:
Algae are chlorophyll-bearing unicellular or multicellular plants. When multicellular, they may be colonial or filamentous. Most of them are aquatic, either fresh water, (Volvox) , or marine, (Spirogyra) . Some are sheet-like (e.g., Ulva). Chlorophyll is present in chloroplasts, the number and shape of which are characteristic of each alga. Besides chlorophyll, they also show various carotenoid pigments which impart different colors to algae. According to the nature of photosynthetic pigments, they are further classified into three divisions such as Chlorophyta (green),. Phaeophyta (brown), and Rhodophyta (red).
Algae show both a gametophytic (haploid) stage and a sporophytic (diploid) stage, which alternate. The life-cycle mainly shows two types, either haplontic or diplontic.
Figure 14.29 Types of life - cycles
(a) Haplontic life - cycle, when the plant body is a gametophyte i.e., haploid and is dominant or of long duration, and the zygote is diploid and of short duration.
(b) Diplontic life-cycle, when the plant body is a sporophyte, i.e. diploid and is dominant or of long duration, and the gametophyte is haploid and of short duration.
These algae live in wide variety of habitats, marine to fresh water to damp soil.
(i) These are unicellular ( Chlamydomonas ), colonial ( Volvox ) or filamentous. When filamentous they are unbranched ( Spirogyra, Ulothrix ) or branched ( Chara ).
(ii) The cell wall consists of an inner layer of cellulose and outer layer of pectic compounds and may be covered by a gelatinous sheath.
(iii) The protoplasm is divisible into cytoplasm and nucleus. Cytoplasm contains one or more vacuoles. Chlorophyll is present in chloroplasts, the shape and number of which are characteristic of each alga.
(iv) Pigments chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-b are predominant. However, carotene and xanthophyll are also present.
(v) Food reserve is in the form of starch surrounding the proteinaceous refractile bodies called pyrenoids.
(vi) Reproduction is vegetative by mitotic cell division in unicellular forms or by fragmentation in filamentous forms asexual by formation of spores such as zoospores, aplanospores, hypnospore and akinates and sexual simply by conjugation or by gamete formation by isogamy or anisogamy or oogamy.
(vii) The life-cycle is of haplontic type showing alternation of dominant haploid stage with short-lived diploid stage.
Watch the video: Kingdom Protista and Kingdom Fungi. Class 11 Biology. iKen (January 2023).