1.1: Introduction and Background - Biology

1.1: Introduction and Background - Biology

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An Introduction and Background for URIECA Modules 4 and 5

Abl and Bcr-Abl Proteins

Abelson (c-Abl or Abl) is a protein tyrosine kinase that is involved in a number of highly-regulated cellular processes, including cell division, differentiation and adhesion. This means that the kinase activity of c-Abl is tightly regulated, and the default activity setting is “off”.

A chromosomal abnormality implicated in chronic myleloid leukemia (CML) causes the reciprocal translocation of genetic material from two different chromosomes, 9 and 22, which results in the formation of a mutant gene that contains part of the BCR (break cluster region) gene from chromosome 22 and part of the ABL gene from chromosome 9. This mutant gene is called BCR-ABL, and the protein it encodes, denoted Bcr-Abl, contains the kinase domain of c-Abl, but lacks the residues responsible for autoinhibition. Bcr-Abl is therefore a constitutively active kinase, which means that the enzyme activity is permanently “on”. This aberrant kinase activity is responsible for uncontrolled cell proliferation, which leads to cancer.

A Small Molecule Drug for CML Treatment

Bcr-Abl activity is the underlying cause for CML, and the identification of the Bcr-Abl oncoprotein led to high throughput screening and the “rational design” of potential small molecule inhibitors. These efforts culminated in the development of the drug Gleevec by chemists at the pharmaceutical company Novartis (a branch of which is a few doors down from us on Mass Ave). Gleevec (also known as Glivec, imatinib, and STI-571) showed excellent efficacy against CML and was approved by the FDA in 2001. Gleevec inhibits Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase activity by competitively binding in the ATP binding pocket of the kinase domain and stabilizing the inactive conformation of the protein. This development was particularly thrilling to the scientific community because Gleevec is the first example of a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor to treat human disease. Also exciting is the striking specificity of Gleevec for Abl. Gleevec only inhibits two other proteins at physiological levels, neither of which result in problematic side effects.


The majority of these Gleevec-resistant cases can be linked to a single amino acid mutation in the Abl kinase domain of the Bcr-Abl protein. Over 30 different point mutations have been identified in Gleevec-resistant CML patients (see appendix B3).

The Abl kinase domain is often used as a model for the full-length Bcr-Abl protein. The Abl kinase domain, similar to Bcr-Abl, lacks the N-terminal Abl regulation domains and is thus constitutively active. During this course you will express and purify an H396P mutant of the Abl kinase domain, a mutation that has been identified in patients with Gleevec-resistent CML. You will use this mutant along with (commercially available) wild-type Abl kinase domain in a coupled phosphorylation assay to determine kinase activity in the absence and presence of Gleevec and another kinase inhibitor, Dasatinib. In addition, you will use site-directed mutagenesis to create a DNA expression vector for future expression of an another Gleevec-resistant Abl mutant of your choice.

1.1: Introduction and Background - Biology

Figure 1. This shark uses its senses of sight, vibration (lateral-line system), and smell to hunt, but it also relies on its ability to sense the electric fields of prey, a sense not present in most land animals. (credit: modification of work by Hermanus Backpackers Hostel, South Africa)

In more advanced animals, the senses are constantly at work, making the animal aware of stimuli—such as light, or sound, or the presence of a chemical substance in the external environment—and monitoring information about the organism’s internal environment. All bilaterally symmetric animals have a sensory system, and the development of any species’ sensory system has been driven by natural selection thus, sensory systems differ among species according to the demands of their environments. The shark, unlike most fish predators, is electrosensitive—that is, sensitive to electrical fields produced by other animals in its environment. While it is helpful to this underwater predator, electrosensitivity is a sense not found in most land animals.

1. Introduction and Background to 1 Corinthians

Before we begin our study of the first chapter of 1 Corinthians, it would be good for us to view the book as a whole as summarized in this outline:

Introduction: Salutation (verses 1-3) and Thanksgiving (verses 4-9)

Dealing With Divisions / Unholy Separation

Dealing With Sin / Biblical Separation

Questions Answered: Commitments (7) and Convictions (8-10)

Church Conduct—Diversity Without Divisions

The Doctrine of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ


A number of years ago, one of the seminary students in our congregation left for a summer ministry in the South. During that week, we received word that his car had broken down on the way and that he was stranded. It was reported as a matter for prayer, but in jest, someone suggested the church send “Bob” to fix the car. My response was that, while I may be able to “heal the sick” (automotively speaking), I am not able to “raise the dead!”

While a student in seminary, I became friends with a student who was a veterinarian. I always teased him by telling him his ministry could be preaching in a church that was going to the dogs. I wonder just how one would feel about being sent to a church like the one in Corinth, as described in the two epistles of Paul to the Corinthians. Frankly, from a purely human point of view, the situation in Corinth appears to be hopeless.

And yet when we read these introductory verses to this epistle, Paul is positive, upbeat, and optimistic. His prayers concerning this church are filled with expressions of thanksgiving. How can this be? How can Paul be so positive and optimistic as he communicates with this church? One thing is certain—it is not because of the godly conduct of many of its members.

Paul’s first words to the Corinthians are not just a repetition of a standard form, a kind of “boiler plate” greeting, as though he were using a pre-packaged computer program which needed nothing else but to fill in the name of the church. The salutation of this epistle provides us not only with a demonstration of Paul’s optimism and enthusiasm in writing to these saints, it also indicates how he can be so positive about this troubled body of believers. More than this, it begins to lay a theological foundation for Paul’s ministry and teaching as it will be given throughout the epistle. This salutation tells us not only how Paul feels about this church, but why he feels as he does. Gordon Fee has this to say about the importance of these first nine verses of 1 Corinthians:

With the elaborations of this letter Paul begins a habit that will carry through to the end. In each case the elaborations reflect, either directly or subtly, many of the concerns about to be raised in the letter itself. Even as he formally addresses the church in the salutation, Paul’s mind is already at work on the critical behavioral and theological issues at hand. 1

The Founding of the Church at Corinth

At the end of Paul’s so-called first missionary journey with Barnabas, the Jerusalem Council met to decide just what should be required of Gentile converts (Acts 15:1-29). When Paul and Barnabas went their separate ways, Paul took Silas with him and set out on what was to be called the second missionary journey of Paul (Acts 15:36-41). They began by revisiting some of the churches that had been founded on the first journey, delivering to them the decision of the Jerusalem Council (16:4-5).

After being divinely prohibited from preaching in Asia (Acts 16:6) and Bithynia, Paul, Silas, and Timothy ended up at Troas, where Paul received the “Macedonian vision” (16:9-10), which brought them 2 to Philippi where a number were saved and a church was established. From Philippi, Paul and his party went to Thessalonica, then to Berea, and finally to Athens (Acts 17). From Athens, Paul went to Corinth, an ancient city of Greece, the seat of government of the Roman province of Achaia. It was in Corinth that Paul first crossed paths with a Jew named Aquila and his wife Priscilla. Like Paul, this man was a tent-maker. He and his wife had fled from Italy because of a command from Claudius that all Jews must leave Rome (Acts 18:1-3). Every Sabbath, Paul went to the synagogue, where he sought to evangelize Jews and Greeks (18:4). Eventually he was joined by Silas and Timothy, who had just arrived from Macedonia. Apparently they brought a gift from the Macedonians which enabled Paul to fully devote himself to the Word, so that he gave all of his efforts to preaching Christ (18:5).

As usual, Paul’s preaching prompted a reaction from the unbelieving Jews, so that he left the synagogue and began to concentrate on evangelizing Gentiles (18:6-7). Paul moved his headquarters to the house of a man named Titius Justus, a Gentile God-fearer who lived next door to the synagogue (18:5-7). Crispus, the leader of the synagogue, became a believer along with the rest of his household. Many other Corinthians were also being saved as well and were submitting to baptism (18:8). The Lord appeared to Paul in a vision, assuring him that there were many more souls to be saved in that city and that he was not to fear. He was to speak out boldly, rather than to hold back for fear of trouble (18:9-10). 3 As a result, Paul extended his ministry in Corinth, staying a total of 18 months, a considerably longer period of ministry than usual.

Paul’s lengthy ministry was facilitated, in part, by Jewish litigation and by the precedent-setting ruling of Gallio, the proconsul of Achaia (18:12-17). The Jews seized Paul and brought him up on charges before Gallio. They accused him of being neither a faithful Jew nor a good citizen. They accused him of speaking and acting against the law. Paul did not even get the opportunity to speak in his own defense. Before he could open his mouth, Gallio gave his ruling. This strife between Paul and the Jews was but another instance of the in-fighting which was so typical of the Jews. Gallio was fed up with it and with them and was not about to be used by these Jewish zealots to prevail over their Jewish rivals. This was not a matter for his judgment. He threw them and their case out of court.

From all we are told of him, Gallio was a pagan who cared nothing for the Jews, the gospel, or Paul. And yet his ruling was a landmark decision, officially legitimizing and protecting those who preached the gospel throughout the entire Roman Empire. Judaism was an official religion, recognized and sanctioned by the Roman government. The Jews were seeking to convince Gallio that Paul was really no Jew and that the preaching of the gospel was not the practice of Judaism. Thus, they inferred, Paul was a threat to the stability of Roman rule. They argued that neither Paul nor any other Christian should be allowed to preach the gospel under the permission and protection of the Roman law. When Gallio refused to rule on this matter, calling it a Jewish squabble, he was declaring Paul’s preaching of the gospel to be the practice of Judaism. Christianity, Gallio’s ruling indicated, was Jewish and thus protected by Roman law. Thus, Paul’s ministry was legal, and any Jewish opposition could not claim Rome as their ally.

Gallio drove them away from his judgment seat. The Jews were furious, and in retaliation they seized Sosthenes, the leader of the synagogue, and began to beat him in front of the proconsul. He looked on with disdain, not at all impressed or concerned. This Sosthenes seems to be the same person who is with Paul as he writes to the Corinthians (1:1).

The City of Corinth

Secular history only verifies and clarifies the impression of the city of Corinth which we gain from the pens of Luke (Acts) and Paul (1 and 2 Corinthians). It was a great city in many ways. Politically, Corinth was the capital city of the Roman province of Achaia, a territory including nearly all of Greece. That is why Gallio, the proconsul of Achaia, was in Corinth and heard the charge against Paul. Geographically, Corinth was so strategically located it could hardly do other than prosper. The city was situated on a plateau overlooking the Isthmus of Corinth, two miles distant from the Gulf. 4 Nearby was the Acrocorinth, a 1900-foot mountain that was perfectly suited as a citadel for the city. This fortress was so secure it was never taken by force until the invention of gun-powder. 5 It also contained an inexhaustible water supply in the fountain of Peirene. 6 At the summit of Acrocorinth was the temple of Aphrodite, the goddess of love. At the base of the citadel stood the temple of Melicertes, the patron of seafarers. 7

Located on an isthmus, Corinth became a crossroads for both land and sea trade. By looking at a map, one can quickly see that Corinth is situated between two large bodies of water and two land areas, and these are virtually surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. Were it not for the isthmus on which Corinth was founded, the southern part of Greece would be an island in the Mediterranean Sea. Goods exchanged between the north and south would normally be shipped by land through Corinth.

Much of the sea trade of the Mediterranean from east to west also passed through Corinth. To the west of Corinth was the port city of Lechaeum on the Gulf of Corinth. On her east was the port of Cenchrae on the Saronic Gulf. These were ports of call for ships that sailed the seas. Travel across the isthmus and through Corinth was generally considered safer than the 200-mile voyage around Cape Malea, the most dangerous cape in the Mediterranean. 8 So dangerous was this journey by sea that the Greeks had two sayings well known to sailors in those days: “ Let him who sails round Malea forget his home, ” and, “ Let him who sails round Malea first make his will. ” 9

To avoid the distance and danger of the journey around the Cape of Malea (now called Cape Matapan 10 ), goods would be unloaded at one port, transported across the four-mile strip of land (through Corinth), and reloaded on the other side. Smaller ships were actually transported with their cargo over the isthmus by means of rollers. Consequently, the isthmus was named the Diolkos , “the place of dragging across.” 11 Nero had planned a canal to join the Aegean and Ionian seas, and he even began construction in A.D. 66. The three and one-half mile canal was finished in 1893. 12

Corinth thus became a great commercial center. Luxuries from all over the world were available, and the vices of the world were also to be found there. These evils did not all have to be imported, however, for the temple of Aphrodite, the goddess of love, was nearby with 1,000 cult prostitutes who sold themselves in the name of religion. The Greeks had a proverb about the city which tells a great deal about its moral decay: “ It is not every man who can afford a journey to Corinth. ” 13 Those who were worldly wise used the verb “corinthianize” to describe an act of immorality. “Corinthian girl” was known to be a synonym for prostitute. 14

Estimates of the population of Corinth range from 100,000 to 600,000. The diversity of peoples who lived in this city is explained by her history. In Paul’s day, Corinth was a very old and yet a very new city. “ Signs of habitation date back to the fourth millennium B.C. ” 15 Alexander made Corinth the center of a new Hellenic League as he prepared for war with Persia. 16 In 146 B.C., the city was destroyed by Roman soldiers because it led the Greek resistance to Roman rule. All the males of the city were exterminated, and the women and children were sold for slaves. 17 The city was rebuilt by Julius Caesar 100 years later, and it eventually became the capital of the province of Achaia. Many of those who settled in Corinth were not Greeks. A large number of Roman soldiers settled there after retiring, having received their freedom and Roman citizenship in addition to grants of land. 18 A variety of nationalities settled in Corinth, enticed by the prospects of economic prosperity. A good number of the immigrants were Jews.

Being a relatively recent city with newly acquired wealth brought problems, for there was the absence of an established aristocracy which would have provided a much more stable society. Farrar spoke of Corinth in this way:

… this mongrel and heterogeneous population of Greek adventurers and Roman bourgeois, with a tainting infusion of Phoenicians this mass of Jews, ex-soldiers, philosophers, merchants, sailors, freedmen, slaves, trades-people, hucksters and agents of every form of vice … without aristocracy, without traditions and without well-established citizens. 19

Every two years Corinth presided over the Isthmian Games, a contest in which all the Greek city-states took part. At these games, the sea-god Poseidon was specially honored. 20

The Occasion for Writing 1 Corinthians

After Paul had completed his 18-month ministry in Corinth, he set out for Syria with Priscilla and Aquila. On reaching Ephesus, Paul ministered for a short time, promising to return if the Lord willed (18:19-21). He left Priscilla and Aquila there and journeyed on to Caesarea, Jerusalem and Antioch (Acts 18:18-22). After strengthening the churches in Asia Minor, Paul returned to Ephesus for a much more extensive ministry. He stayed in Ephesus, teaching in the school of Tyrannus for two years. While in Ephesus, he seems to have received unfavorable reports about the Corinthian church which prompted him to write his first letter to this church, a letter which was not preserved as a part of the New Testament canon (1 Corinthians 5:9-11).

Later, while Paul was still ministering the Word in Ephesus, he heard from some of “ Chloe’s people ” that divisions were beginning to emerge among the Corinthian saints. In addition, Paul was informed of a case of gross immorality in the church, one with which the church had not dealt. Instead of feeling shame and sorrow over this sin, at least some of the saints were proud of their tolerance (chapter 5). He heard also of Christians taking their fellow-believers to court, seeking to have pagans pass judgment on spiritual matters (chapter 6). Paul was also told of unbecoming conduct at the Lord’s Supper (chapter 11) and of doctrinal error concerning the resurrection (chapter 15). A three-man delegation consisting of Stephanas, Fortunatus, and Achaicus also arrived from Corinth (16:17) bringing a letter which inquired of Paul about marriage (7:1), virgins (7:25), food sacrificed to idols (8:1), spiritual gifts (12:1), the collection for the saints (16:1), and Apollos (16:12). It was while he was in Ephesus that Paul wrote 1 Corinthians in response to the reports and questions he received there. 21

Paul’s Preamble (1:1-3)

1 Paul, called as an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Sosthenes our brother, 2 to the church of God which is at Corinth, to those who have been sanctified in Christ Jesus, saints by calling, with all who in every place call upon the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, their Lord and ours: 3 Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

That Paul should write such a letter as this should come as no surprise to us and certainly not to the Corinthians. After all, Paul had already written one epistle which was not preserved for us. Paul was the one who first came to Corinth with the gospel. Many of the members of the church in Corinth were the fruit of his ministry (1 Corinthians 9:2 2 Corinthians 3:1-4). Paul wrote with apostolic authority. By the will of God, he was chosen and called as an apostle. He wrote with full authority. His words were not to be ignored.

Paul addresses his epistle to the church at Corinth and then proceeds to define the church. This is a very important definition to which we should give our full attention. First, Paul wants us to be assured that the church belongs to God. How often we hear churches identified in terms of who the pastor is. That is ______’s church, and we fill in the blank with the pastor’s name. When we do so, we indicate our deep and fundamental difference with Paul who believed that the church belongs to God. God is the One who brought the church into existence through the shed blood of His Son, Jesus Christ. God is the One who sustains His church. It is God’s church.

Generally speaking, the term “church” is defined in terms of two categories: (a) the local church and (b) the church universal. The local church is understood as that body of believers who gather regularly in one place. The “universal church” consists of all believers in every place and in the whole course of church history.

I do not wish to differ with these two definitions of the church. They are probably useful ways of considering groups of believers. But the “local church” and the “universal church” are not entirely consistent with Paul’s use of the term as he employs it in the New Testament. Here, the church is defined as (a) “ those who have been sanctified in Christ Jesus, saints by calling ,” and (b) “ all who in every place call upon the name of our Lord Jesus Christ ” (verse 2).

We might be inclined to think of this first category as “the local church.” In a sense, it is. But when Paul speaks of the church, he simply refers to a group of believers. Sometimes this group is a “house church,” a group of believers meeting in a certain person’s home (Romans 16:5, 19 Colossians 4:15 Philemon 1:2). These “house churches” may have met in a larger gathering, as did the saints in Jerusalem (see Acts 2:46). Then, Paul referred to the “city church,” that is, the group of all believers in a particular city (see Revelation 2 and 3), or the church at a particular city (Acts 11:22 13:1 18:22 Romans 16:1). This is the way Paul referred to the Corinthian church, the “ church of God which is at Corinth ” (1 Corinthians 1:2 2 Corinthians 1:1). Finally, Paul speaks of the church as all those living at one time, who have trusted in Jesus Christ for salvation.

I fear our view of the church is either too narrow (the local church— our church) or too broad (all those who have ever lived and trusted in Christ for salvation). We pray for our missionaries, the missionaries we have sent out from our local church, or more broadly, from our denominational group. A few churches share with those in need within their own fellowship or local church . When the new believers (the church ) at Antioch heard a famine was coming upon the world, they enthusiastically began to prepare to give to their brethren in Judea. They understood, even at this early stage in their growth and maturity, that the church is bigger than the local church.

When we hear of disasters taking place around the world, do we immediately begin to consider the impact on our brethren, our fellow members of the world-wide church, and act accordingly? I fear we do not, at least to the degree we should. With such rapid communications in our time, we could easily and quickly learn of the trials and tribulations of fellow believers, no matter where they are in the world. And our ability to respond is also significantly easier than it was for the saints of Antioch. Let us begin to think of the church in Paul’s terms, rather than in the narrower terms to which we are accustomed.

In this broader sense of the church, we see that Paul’s epistle, though addressed to the saints at Corinth, was also written to the church at large. Look once again at the first two verses of Paul’s salutation: “Paul, called as an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Sosthenes our brother, to the church of God which is at Corinth, to those who have been sanctified in Christ Jesus, saints by calling, with all who in every place call upon the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, their Lord and ours.”

This broader element in Paul’s salutation is important because it reminds us that “church truth” is “church truth.” That is, Paul’s teaching to the saints at Corinth is just as applicable and just as authoritative for the church at Philippi, or Ephesus, or Dallas. Too many have tried to avoid Paul’s teaching in his Corinthians Epistles by insisting he is speaking to a very special and unique problem found only in Corinth. This simply does not square with Paul’s words. His instructions to the Corinthians apply to every other saint:

16 I exhort you therefore, be imitators of me. 17 For this reason I have sent to you Timothy, who is my beloved and faithful child in the Lord, and he will remind you of my ways which are in Christ, just as I teach everywhere in every church (1 Corinthians 4:16-17).

33 for God is not a God of confusion but of peace, as in all the churches of the saints. 34 Let the women keep silent in the churches for they are not permitted to speak, but let them subject themselves, just as the Law also says (1 Corinthians 14:33-34).

It has also been pointed out that in addressing the church at Corinth, Paul does not distinguish any one believer or group of believers from any other. We shall soon see that the Corinthian church was plagued with the dilemma of divisions. Here, Paul does not address the church other than as one group of believers, equally lost as unbelievers, and now equally saved through the person and work of Jesus Christ. Furthermore, Paul is careful to emphasize that the standing of the saints in Corinth and elsewhere is solely the result of the grace of God manifested through the Lord Jesus Christ. There are no grounds for boasting, except in the person and work of Christ.

Paul’s Thanksgiving (1:4-9)

4 I thank my God always concerning you, for the grace of God which was given you in Christ Jesus, 5 that in everything you were enriched in Him, in all speech and all knowledge, 6 even as the testimony concerning Christ was confirmed in you, 7 so that you are not lacking in any gift, awaiting eagerly the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ, 8 who shall also confirm you to the end, blameless in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ. 9 God is faithful, through whom you were called into fellowship with His Son, Jesus Christ our Lord.

Somehow, an expression of thanksgiving is not what I would have expected from Paul at this point in time. Here is a church that has begun to listen to false teachers and who is challenging Paul’s authority. Here is a church which condones immorality and “unconditionally accepts” a man whose sin shocks the unbelieving pagans of that city. Here is a church whose personal conflicts are being aired out before unbelieving eyes in secular courts. How can Paul possibly give thanks?

Paul does not give thanks for the sins and failures of these saints. Paul gives thanks to God for what He has done and for what He will ultimately do for His children. Paul first gives thanks for the “ grace of God ,” which He has given the saints in Christ Jesus (verse 4). Grace is unmerited favor, and we must surely agree that these saints—not to mention ourselves—are unworthy. The good things which have already been accomplished, and all those good things yet to be accomplished, are manifestations of God’s infinite grace, bestowed upon those who are unworthy.

Paul gives thanks for the sufficiency of God’s grace to the saints as articulated in verses 5-7.

5 That in everything you were enriched in Him, in all speech and all knowledge, 6 even as the testimony concerning Christ was confirmed in you, 7 so that you are not lacking in any gift, awaiting eagerly the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ.

God’s grace to the saints in Corinth and everywhere was boundless. He enriched them in everything. They were enriched in all speech and all knowledge. This was achieved through the preaching of the “ testimony of Christ ,” as it was confirmed in each and every believer. The Corinthians had no critical need for which God had not made provision through the apostolic preaching of Christ. Were there false teachers who indicated the Corinthians were lacking and that they needed more of something? They were liars! God had already provided all that was necessary for “ life and godliness ” in Christ (see 2 Peter 1:2-4). No gift was lacking in the church. God had provided just the right gifts for the growth and maturity and ministry of the saints in Corinth. If the church at Corinth was failing, it was not due to any failure on God’s part to provide for their needs, but rather a failure on their part to appropriate these means.

Finally, Paul expressed his thanksgiving for the faithfulness of God and the resulting assurance that He would complete that which He had begun in the Corinthian saints (verses 7-9). Elsewhere, Paul put it this way:

6 For I am confident of this very thing, that He who began a good work in you will perfect it until the day of Christ Jesus (Philippians 1:6).

12 For this reason I also suffer these things, but I am not ashamed for I know whom I have believed and I am convinced that He is able to guard what I have entrusted to Him until that day (2 Timothy 1:12).

These saints were eagerly awaiting the revelation of our Lord Jesus Christ (7a). Their salvation had not only the past and present benefits, referred to earlier, but a future hope. As motley a crew as this Corinthian church proved to be, their salvation and security were God’s doing. Consequently, Paul had great confidence concerning this church and the future of each saint. Paul thanked God because He would confirm these saints to the end. What God had started, He would finish. They were secure, and their hope was certain, just as Peter also writes:

3 Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who according to His great mercy has caused us to be born again to a living hope through the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the dead, 4 to obtain an inheritance which is imperishable and undefiled and will not fade away, reserved in heaven for you, 5 who are protected by the power of God through faith for a salvation ready to be revealed in the last time (1 Peter 1:3-5).

While these Corinthian saints may not consistently be faithful, God is faithful. It is through His faithfulness that each believer has been called to salvation. It is because of His faithfulness that we will persevere and enter into His kingdom, blameless in the day of our Lord Jesus Christ.

No wonder Paul is thankful. In spite of the stumbling and sin which is evident in the Corinthian church, God has saved the saints there. He has sufficiently provided for their every spiritual need. He has purposed to present them faultless when He establishes His kingdom. Paul therefore is assured that his ministry is not in vain, because the salvation and sanctification of the saints in Corinth and elsewhere are the work of God. The God who called these saints and destined them for glory is the God who called Paul to be an apostle and to minister to these saints. Paul’s work is not in vain, for his work is ultimately God’s work.


Paul is writing to a very troubled church, a church which exists in the midst of a very corrupt city and culture. In spite of this, Paul has a very confident mood as he addresses the saints at Corinth and around the world of his day and ours. I notice that in spite of the weaknesses and willful sins of these saints, Paul does not begin by questioning the reality of their conversion, but by affirming the present and future benefits. There are texts which do question the reality of the faith of persistently wayward professing believers, but this is not one of them. These saints need to be reminded of the certainty of their salvation. The certainty of their salvation rests not within themselves, but in the One who called them and the One who will complete all that He has begun. This certainty also assures Paul that his continued ministry to this church is not in vain.

This book of 1 Corinthians should cause us to reject the myth of the perfect New Testament church. We often refer to ourselves at Community Bible Chapel as a “New Testament church.” We are that in the sense that our church is patterned after the principles set down in the New Testament. We have no one “pastor,” who is the head of the church, but we recognize that Christ is the only Head of the church. We are governed by a plurality of elders. We have a weekly observance of the Lord’s Supper, and we encourage believers to exercise their spiritual gifts in a way that edifies the whole body. We do not wish to imply by the expression “New Testament church” that we are a perfect church or even that we are a good church at all times.

So often Christians look back to the New Testament times as though the church in those days was nearly perfect. If you read the Book of Acts the way I do, there is a wonderful period of bliss in the infancy of the church, but this lasts only from late in chapter 2 to the end of chapter 4. In chapter 5, a couple is struck dead for lying to the Holy Spirit. In chapter 6, there is strife between two groups of Jews over the care of their widows. And by the time we get to the Corinthian church, it is far from perfect and hardly what could be called good. The final words of our Lord to the seven churches of Asia in Revelation 2 and 3 are not complimentary either. The church was not perfect in New Testament times, and neither is it perfect today. The same sins which Paul exposes in 1 and 2 Corinthians are present and evident in evangelical churches today. And so Paul’s words of admonition and correction are just as applicable to us today as they were to the saints of his day.

We deceive ourselves if we think we can retreat within the church walls to escape the evils of the world. The Corinthians Epistles inform us that the world too easily and quickly finds its way into the church. The church is not the place where we go to escape from sin it is the place where we go to confront our sin and to stimulate each other to love and good deeds. The church is not a Christian “clean room” where we can get away from sin it is a hospital, where we can find help and healing through the ministry of the Word and prayer.

The church is not the place which is kept holy by keeping sinners away. It is the place where newly born sinners are brought, so that they can learn the Scriptures and grow in their faith. All too often, new believers feel unwelcomed by the church. The church is afraid of newly saved sinners because they do not really understand holiness or sanctification. Let us not strive to preserve the purity of the church by keeping out the newly saved pagans. Let us strive to preserve the purity of the church by throwing out some of the professing saints who boast only of the time they have put in at the church but whose profession of faith is hypocritical (see 1 Corinthians 5).

If there was hope for the Corinthians, then there is hope for anyone. The first nine verses of this epistle are saturated with reason for hope. Do you know someone who is hopelessly lost, who is not just disinterested in the gospel but adamantly opposed to it? Then take hope from the two men from whom this letter is sent. The apostle Paul was once Saul, the Saul who stood by and held the garments for those who stoned Stephen, the Paul who went from city to city seeking to find Christians whom he could arrest and even put to death. This man is now willing to give his life for the sake of the gospel.

If I understand the text correctly, Sosthenes is another Saul. In Acts 18, we are told that Crispus, the synagogue leader in Corinth, came to faith in the Lord Jesus Christ. It appears that Sosthenes is his replacement. I understand him to be the leader of the opposition to Paul and the church in Corinth. At his instigation, it would seem, charges were brought against Christianity before Gallio, the proconsul of Achaia (Acts 18:12-17). When Gallio refuses to hear this case, it is clear that Paul and the church have won. In frustration and anger, the unbelieving Jews turn on Sosthenes, their leader, beating him as Gallio watched, unmoved. Now, Sosthenes is a traveling companion of Paul’s, a brother in the Lord. Two of the most hostile unbelievers are now brothers in the Lord. Is there hope for the lost? There most certainly is!

If there is hope for the lost, there is also hope for those who are saved but whose life falls far short of the standard set by the Scriptures. Here is a church that seems almost beyond hope. There are divisions, immorality, and opposition to the apostle Paul and to apostolic teaching. Is Paul discouraged? Does Paul give up hope? No! Paul’s first words to this church are those of hope and confidence. Paul’s confidence and hope are not in the Corinthians, in their good intentions, or in their diligent efforts. His hope is in the One who called him and who called the Corinthian saints as well. His hope is in the fact that God has abundantly provided for every spiritual need in that church. His hope is in the faithfulness of the God who started the good work in these believers and who is committed to bring it to completion.

Have you ever felt that a loved one or a friend were hopeless? They may be a believer, but their life is a mess. This epistle reminds us that there is hope for such a saint. Have you ever felt that you were beyond help, beyond hope? This epistle is for you. Its first words to you remind you of the character and the work of God in the saints, through the work of His Son, Jesus Christ . Cease trusting in yourself, in your good intentions, in your efforts, and once again place your trust in the One who alone can save and sanctify. Heed Paul’s words of warning and of instruction. If there is hope for Saul and Sosthenes and for saints at Corinth, there is hope for anyone.

1 Gordon D. Fee, The First Epistle to the Corinthians (Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company [reprint], 1993), p. 28.

2 It seems that here at Troas Dr. Luke joined the party, for beginning in Acts 16:10, Luke changes from the third person (he, they) to the second (us, we).

3 This is certainly not the typical impression which we have of Paul. We think of him as a kind of religious pit bull, who simply cannot be stopped or silenced. This vision strongly implies that Paul was fearful and that without God’s encouragement, Paul may have held back for fear of Jewish reprisals.

4 A Rupprecht, “Corinth,” The Zondervan Pictorial Encyclopedia of the Bible , Merrill C. Tenney, General Editor (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 1975), I, p. 960.

6 F. F. Bruce, The New Century Bible Commentary: I and II Corinthians (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1971), p. 18.

8 William Barclay, The Letters to the Corinthians , rev. ed. (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1975), p. 2.

12 D. H. Madvig, “Corinth,” The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia , rev. ed., Geoffrey W. Bromiley, General Editor (Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., I, p. 773.

13 Barclay, Corinthians , p. 3.

18 “When a Roman soldier had served his time, he was granted the citizenship and was then sent out to some newly-founded city and given a grant of land so that he might become a settler there. These Roman colonies were planted all over the world, and always the backbone of them was the contingent of veteran regular soldiers whose faithful service had won them the citizenship.” Barclay, Corinthians , p. 4.


In 1996, Congress passed the Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant Responsibility Act (IIRIRA), which required the Social Security Administration (SSA) and U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS), formerly the Immigration and Naturalization Service, to conduct an employment verification pilot program. Under the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), USCIS operates the E Verify program, previously referred to as the Basic Pilot program. E-Verify is an internet-based system that implements the requirements of IIRIRA by allowing any U.S. employer to electronically confirm the employment eligibility of its newly hired employees.

E-Verify is a voluntary program. However, employers with federal contracts or subcontracts that contain the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) E-Verify clause are required to enroll in and use E-Verify as a condition of federal contracting. Employers with employees in states with legislation that require participation in E-Verify , for example, as a condition of business licensing, may also be required to participate in E-Verify . In addition, an employer may be required to participate in E-Verify pursuant to a court order.

NOTE: E-Verify does not provide guidance on state or local E-Verify laws. For help, contact the appropriate state officials, a local Chamber of Commerce, or other legal advisors.

Apart from any state or local law that requires participation in E-Verify , employers are fully responsible for complying with sections 274A (which addresses the requirements of the Form I-9 process) and 274B (which addresses unfair immigration-related employment practices) of the Immigration and Nationality Act. Employers who fail to comply with either section may be subject to penalties.

E-Verify works by electronically comparing the information from an employee’s Form I 9 with records available to SSA and/or DHS to verify the identity and employment eligibility of each newly hired employee and/or employee assigned to a covered federal contract.

Employers can verify the employment eligibility of only one person at a time within E-Verify . All cases must be created individually.

E-Verify is free, and it is the best means available to confirm the employment eligibility of new hires. The E-Verify statute limits the scope of E-Verify operations to the United States, which includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Users may only create E-Verify cases in the United States.

NOTE: E-Verify Self Check, referred to as Self Check, is a free, fast, secure and voluntary online service that allows individuals to confirm their own employment eligibility themselves. Employers may not ask current or prospective employees to use Self Check to prove employment eligibility. The service is designed to provide visibility into government records, and if necessary, guidance on how individuals can correct those records. Self Check is separate from the E-Verify user interface. For more information and specific rules, visit www. e-verify .gov/ mye-verify /self-check.

Use of Self Check does not satisfy or supersede the requirements of federal contractors subject to the FAR E-Verify clause, or any other employers, to use E Verify.

For more information on E-Verify procedures, rules and responsibilities for federal contractors with the FAR E-Verify clause, refer to the E-Verify Supplemental Guide for Federal Contractors.

IV. The Occasion of 1 Thessalonians:The book is clearly written to a group of very new believers who were quickly brought into the faith and then immediately thrown into the “grasp of Satan” as persecutions broke out upon them (Acts 17 1 Thess. 2:14-16 2 Thess. 3:3) therefore, questions would immediately arise:

B. If they were from God, why are they being hindered so by persecution?

C. Now what should they do?

1. Their faith was weak (1 Thess. 3:2)

2. They needed perspective on the disturbances which they were facing (1 Thess 3:3-4)

3. They needed to know how love worked its way out towards others--especially those who persecute them (1 Thess. 3:12)

4. They needed to know how “now” related to the future return of Jesus (1 Thess. 3:13)

5. They needed to know how far to take Paul’s exhortations toward godly living (1 Thess. 4:1-5)

6. They needed to know how to act within the church (1 Thess. 5)

Haggai ministered among the Jews who had returned to Judea after some 70 years of exile in Babylon. The Persian ruler Cyrus the Great captured Babylon in 539 b.c. In 538 he permitted the Jews to return to Jerusalem so that they might rebuild the temple (Ezra 1–2). The work of rebuilding stalled, however, when opposition arose (Ezra 3:1–4:5). Haggai prophesied in an effort to motivate the people to renew their work of temple restoration.

The work of temple restoration highlights the Lord’s desire to renew a covenant relationship with his people (1:13 2:4–5).

Difference Between Introduction and Background

Writing a research paper is not an easy job. The writer has to present his findings in such a manner so as to make an interesting reading. This requires giving an introduction as well as background to satisfy the queries of the readers. Many people think of these two vital parts of a document such as a research paper as being same or interchangeable. This article brings out the differences between the introduction and background, as well as their role in making a document compelling for a reader.


Introduction is that part of a document that tries to introduce the document in an interesting manner to the reader. Introduction is all about what a reader can expect in the document, in a concise manner. However, the introduction contains all the major points that are actually covered in the document. Introduction has to be presented in such a manner so that it lures the reader into reading the entire document. This is not easy, and an art in itself to compel the reader to pick up the research paper and read it in its entirety. This compares well with the trailer of a movie that picks up highlights of the movie to make it look very interesting for the viewer.

Background of a research paper is written with the intention of clarifying the importance and the necessity of the paper in the first place. Why the study and what the basic purpose behind the study are the major questions that are answered through background that is presented with a research paper. A background is also a tool in the hands of the writer to prepare a reader for the document who is not familiar with the concepts discussed in the paper. Background also tries to prepare a reader to send him finally to read the full document.

It is hard to expect a reader to read the full document without creating a background as to what made the writer prepare the document. Background information is necessary as often a reader is interested in knowing the incidents prior to the research. It is like the foundation stone of a building upon which the entire edifice later stands.

What is the difference between Introduction and Background?

• Both an introduction, as well as, background is necessary and integral parts of a document

• Introduction is like showing a trailer of a movie to entice a reader to go through the entire document

• Background is to make a reader understand the reasons of conducting a study and the incidents leading up to the study.

Key Themes

  1. God’s wrath comes on those who reject the gospel (2:16 5:3).
  2. Jesus’ death and resurrection are the basis for the Christian’s hope (4:14 5:10).
  3. Christians are destined not for wrath but for salvation when Christ returns (1:10 5:4, 9).
  4. Christians who die will participate fully in the second coming (4:14–17 5:10).
  5. Those who respond to the gospel have been elected and called by God. They continue to be called by God throughout their lives (1:4 2:12 4:7 5:9, 24).
  6. Christians should live lives of complete holiness (3:13 4:3–8 5:23).
  7. Christians must never ignore their responsibility to work (4:9–12 5:14).
  8. The truth of the gospel is confirmed by the integrity of its preachers (1:5 2:1–12).
  9. Joy, especially in suffering, is a mark of the Christian (1:6 5:16).
  10. Christians experience the realities of the new covenant (4:8–9).
  11. Faith, hope, and love are essential traits of the Christian (1:2–3 5:8).

Plant Breeding: Definition, Objectives and Historical Background

Plant breeding is a science based on principles of genetics and cytogenetic. It aims at improving the genetic makeup of the crop plants.

Improved varieties are developed through plant breeding. Its objectives are to improve yield, quality, disease-resistance, drought and frost-tolerance and important characteristics of the crops.

Plant breeding has been crucial in increasing production of crops to meet the ever increasing demand for food. Some well known achievements are development of semi-dwarf wheat and rice varieties, noblization of Indian canes (sugarcanes), and production of hybrid and composite varieties of maize, jowar and bajra.

As written above, crop improvement means combining desirable characteristics in one plant and then multiplying it. The job of a plant breeder is to select plants with desired characters, cross them and then identify the offspring that combine the attributes of both parents. He then multiplies the progeny to supply to farmers, growers or planters.

The modern age of plant breeding began in the early part of the twentieth century, after Mendel’s work was rediscovered. Today plant breeding is a specialized technology based on genetics. It is now clearly understood that within a given environment, crop improvement has to be achieved through superior heredity.

Objectives of Plant Breeding:

To develop varieties with better characteristics, such as:

5. Adaptability to wide range of habitats

6. Resistance to alkaline and saline soil conditions

10. Insect and pest resistance

Historical Background:

1. R. Camerarius produced the first artificial hybrid plant of maize in 1694.

2. Kolreuter (1733-1806) produced successful hybrids through artificial crosses in many plants.

3. The discipline of plant breeding witnessed great advances with the increased knowledge in the field of genetics.

4. Shull (1908, 1909) while investigating effect of inbreeding and cross-breeding in maize gave the concept of heterosis which has resulted in manifold increase in agricultural production.

5. Male Sterility in plants was reported by Kolreuter in 1763 which led to the economic exploitation of heterosis.

6. Alphonse de Condolle in 1882 was the first to give an account of the history and origin of cultivated plants.

7. N.I. Vavilov in 1925 proposed eight centres of origin of crops. These centres provided the regions of immense genetic resources of cultivated plants which existed there.

Institutes Engaged in Plant Breeding at National and International Level:

1. International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines.

2. International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT), Mexico.

3. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Hyderabad.

4. International Potato Centre (CIP), Peru.

5. International Board of Plant Genetic resources (now International Plant Genetic Resources Institute IBPGR, now IPGRI).

Chapter 1. Introduction

Wireshark is a network packet analyzer. A network packet analyzer presents captured packet data in as much detail as possible.

You could think of a network packet analyzer as a measuring device for examining what’s happening inside a network cable, just like an electrician uses a voltmeter for examining what’s happening inside an electric cable (but at a higher level, of course).

In the past, such tools were either very expensive, proprietary, or both. However, with the advent of Wireshark, that has changed. Wireshark is available for free, is open source, and is one of the best packet analyzers available today.

1.1.1. Some intended purposes

Here are some reasons people use Wireshark:

  • Network administrators use it to troubleshoot network problems
  • Network security engineers use it to examine security problems
  • QA engineers use it to verify network applications
  • Developers use it to debug protocol implementations
  • People use it to learn network protocol internals

Wireshark can also be helpful in many other situations.

1.1.2. Features

The following are some of the many features Wireshark provides:

  • Available for UNIX and Windows .
  • Capture live packet data from a network interface.
  • Open files containing packet data captured with tcpdump/WinDump, Wireshark, and many other packet capture programs.
  • Import packets from text files containing hex dumps of packet data.
  • Display packets with very detailed protocol information .
  • Save packet data captured.
  • Export some or all packets in a number of capture file formats.
  • Filter packets on many criteria.
  • Search for packets on many criteria.
  • Colorize packet display based on filters.
  • Create various statistics .
  • …​and a lot more!

However, to really appreciate its power you have to start using it.

Figure 1.1, “Wireshark captures packets and lets you examine their contents.” shows Wireshark having captured some packets and waiting for you to examine them.

Figure 1.1. Wireshark captures packets and lets you examine their contents.

1.1.3. Live capture from many different network media

Wireshark can capture traffic from many different network media types, including Ethernet, Wireless LAN, Bluetooth, USB, and more. The specific media types supported may be limited by several factors, including your hardware and operating system. An overview of the supported media types can be found at

1.1.4. Import files from many other capture programs

Wireshark can open packet captures from a large number of capture programs. For a list of input formats see Section 5.2.2, “Input File Formats”.

1.1.5. Export files for many other capture programs

Wireshark can save captured packets in many formats, including those used by other capture programs. For a list of output formats see Section 5.3.2, “Output File Formats”.

1.1.6. Many protocol dissectors

There are protocol dissectors (or decoders, as they are known in other products) for a great many protocols: see Appendix C, Protocols and Protocol Fields.

1.1.7. Open Source Software

Wireshark is an open source software project, and is released under the GNU General Public License (GPL). You can freely use Wireshark on any number of computers you like, without worrying about license keys or fees or such. In addition, all source code is freely available under the GPL. Because of that, it is very easy for people to add new protocols to Wireshark, either as plugins, or built into the source, and they often do!

Yet Another Writing Tip

Always End with a Roadmap

The final paragraph or sentences of your introduction should forecast your main arguments and conclusions and provide a brief description of the rest of the paper [the "roadmap"] that let's the reader know where you are going and what to expect. A roadmap is important because it helps the reader place the research problem within the context of their own perspectives about the topic. In addition, concluding your introduction with an explicit roadmap tells the reader that you have a clear understanding of the structural purpose of your paper. In this way, the roadmap acts as a type of promise to yourself and to your readers that you will follow a consistent and coherent approach to addressing the topic of inquiry. Refer to it often to help keep your writing focused and organized.

Cassuto, Leonard. &ldquoOn the Dissertation: How to Write the Introduction.&rdquo The Chronicle of Higher Education, May 28, 2018 Radich, Michael. A Student's Guide to Writing in East Asian Studies. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Writing n. d.), pp. 35-37.

Watch the video: IB Biology - Introduction to Cells - Interactive Lecture (January 2023).