Identification of a purple flower

Identification of a purple flower

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What is this purple flower? Picture taken from a garden in India.

It closely looks like Tibouchina urvilleana* or any other Tibouchina species. You can have a look here.

[Source:Wikimedia common]

Tibouchina urvilleana is a species of flowering plant in the family Melastomataceae, native to Brazil. Growing to 3-6 m (10-20 ft) tall by 2-3 m (7-10 ft) wide, it is a sprawling evergreen shrub with longitudinally veined, dark green hairy leaves. Clusters of brilliant purple flowers up to 10 cm (4 in) in diameter, with black stamens, are borne throughout summer and autumn.[Source]

*Credits to @RHA for suggesting the right species.

Mastering Biology CH 14 homework

Diploid cells have two sets of chromosomes, one set inherited from each parent, that form homologous pairs.

The homologs of a chromosome pair contain the same genetic loci. Therefore, each genetic locus is represented twice in a diploid cell.

The white allele is the recessive allele.

the round allele (R) is dominant to the wrinkled allele (r) and

the yellow allele (Y) is dominant to the green allele (y).

The table below shows the F1 progeny that result from selfing four different parent pea plants.

Use the phenotypes of the F1 progeny to deduce the genotype and phenotype of each parent plant.

Parent phenotype plant 2: yellow round
Parent genotype plant 2: RrYy

Parent phenotype plant 3: yellow round
Parent genotype plant 3: RRYy

[round, yellow], [wrinkled, yellow], [round, green], and [wrinkled, green].

Use this information to deduce the genotypes of the parent plants.

Expected frequencies yellow wrinkled: 3/8
Progeny genotypes yellow wrinkled: rrYY, rrYy (x2)

Expected frequencies green round: 1/8
Progeny genotypes green round: Rryy

This Punnett square shows the results of a Yy x Yy cross to form F2 progeny.

Use your understanding of Mendel's law of segregation and the rules of probability to complete the Punnett square for this cross.

First identify the gametes. Use pink labels to identify the male and female gamete types and white labels to identify the gamete frequencies.

2. What is the probability that an F2 seed chosen at random from among the yellow seeds will breed true when selfed? 1/3

3. What is the probability that three F2 seeds chosen at random will include at least one yellow seed? 63/64

Forked: The mutant allele is dominant to its corresponding wild-type allele.

You designate the forked mutant allele as F (wild type = f+ ) and the pale mutant allele as p (wild type = P).

1. Consider the alleles for leaf color first. Drag the labels to the targets in Group 1 to identify the genotype of each F2 class. Remember that p (the pale mutant allele) and P (the wild-type allele) are incompletely dominant to each other.

2. Consider the alleles for leaf shape next. Drag the labels to the targets in Group 2 to identify the genotype of each F2 class. Remember that F (the forked mutant allele) is dominant to f + (the wild-type allele).

Cirsium horridulum Bull Thistle is a native herbaceous perennial that may grow 2 to 5 feet tall and is very spiny on all parts of the plant. It is often found along the edges of salt marshes, fields, shores, savannahs, roadsides, and waste places. It is also a pasture weed in the South. It grows best in sandy soil. It is a high-value nectar plant for bees and butterflies and the birds eat the seeds. Cirsium horridulum Kerry Woods CC BY-NC-ND 2.0 Cirsium horridulum bloom stalk Eleanor CC BY-NC 2.0 Cream colored flower Mary Keim CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 Gold Flower Judy Gallagher CC BY 2.0 Cirsium horridulum bloom detail Bob Peterson CC BY 2.0 Bud with spines Bob Peterson CC-BY-SA 2.0 Flower Bob Peterson CC-BY-SA 2.0 Yellow swallowtail sipping nectar from a thistle bloom. Jim Lawerence Full Plant Scott Zona CC BY-NC 2.0 Bud Sonia Hill CC BY 2.0 Geographical distribution and history:

The home of Alfalfa is Asia, probably the southwestern parts. It has been grown in Persia from time immemorial and is perhaps the oldest forage plant in the world. It was highly esteemed as fodder for horses, its Persian name meaning horse fodder. From Persia it was brought to Greece about 500 B.C., whence it spread to Italy. It was introduced to western Europe by way of northern Africa. The Arabs carried the plant to Spain in the seventh century. From Spain it was introduced into France. It is now grown in all European countries except the most northern. It was introduced by the Spaniards into Mexico, whence it spread to the western United States and to South America, and by the English and other colonists to the eastern parts of North America. It is now cultivated all over the United States. In Canada it is confined to small areas, southern Ontario and southern Alberta being the two districts where it is grown extensively.

Mendel's Second Set of Experiments

Mendel wondered whether different characteristics are inherited together. For example, are purple flowers and tall stems always inherited together? Or do these two characteristics show up in different combinations in offspring? To answer these questions, Mendel next investigated two characteristics at a time. For example, he crossed plants with yellow round seeds and plants with green wrinkled seeds. The results of this cross are shown in Figure (PageIndex<5>).

F1 and F2 Generations

In this set of experiments, Mendel observed that plants in the F1 generation were all alike. All of them had yellow round seeds like one of the two parents. When the F1 generation plants were self-pollinated, however, their offspring&mdashthe F2 generation&mdashshowed all possible combinations of the two characteristics. Some had green round seeds, for example, and some had yellow wrinkled seeds. These combinations of characteristics were not present in the F1 or P generations.

Figure (PageIndex<6>): The parent generation consisted of smooth yellow peas and green wrinkled peas. The first offspring generation all had smooth yellow seeds. When these F1 plants were crossed, the offspring had Smooth yellow, smooth green, wrinkled yellow and wrinkled green seeds in a ratio of 9:3:3:1.

Law of Independent Assortment

Mendel repeated this experiment with other combinations of characteristics, such as flower color and stem length. Each time, the results were the same as those shown in the figure above. The results of Mendel's second set of experiments led to his second law. This is the law of independent assortment. It states that factors controlling different characteristics are inherited independently of each other.

Springtime Science: Exploring the Pigments in Flowers

In the springtime it can be easy to spot flowers in a dazzling array of colors at flower gardens and in plant nurseries. And with Mother's Day coming, stunning flower bouquets seem to be everywhere. Have you ever wondered what makes a flower appear a certain color to us? For example, what pigments make a rose be a deep, rich shade of red? Do different flowers use the same pigments? In this activity you'll get to use paper chromatography to investigate if the pigments from one type of red flower are different from those in another type of red flower.

A flower&rsquos pigments help to attract possible pollinators, such as honeybees, butterflies and hummingbirds. There are two major classes of flower pigments: carotenoids and flavonoids. Carotenoids include carotene pigments (which produce yellow, orange and red colors). Flavonoids include anthocyanin pigments (which produce red, purple, magenta and blue colors). Usually, the color a flower appears depends on the color of the pigments in the flower, but this can be affected by other factors. For example, blue cornflowers have the same pigments as red roses, but the pigments in the cornflower petals are bound to other pigments and metal ions, making cornflowers look blue.

In this activity you'll use paper chromatography to investigate the pigments in flowers. Chromatography is a technique that is used to separate out the components of a complex mixture or solution. In paper chromatography a solution is dabbed onto the bottom of a paper strip, and the strip is then placed in a liquid. The liquid moves up the paper and, depending on how soluble they are in the liquid, the pigments are carried up the paper with the moving liquid. Ideally the components move at different speeds, so they can be separated.

&bull Paper towels (Thicker ones will work better.)
&bull Scissors
&bull Pencil
&bull Ruler
&bull Jar, drinking glass or mug
&bull Measuring cup
&bull 70 percent isopropyl rubbing alcohol
&bull Water (distilled water is preferable, but tap water is also suitable).
&bull Large-mouth glass jar
&bull Red flower petals. Try to get at least two flower petals from at least three different plants, such as from your own garden, a florist or plant nursery. You could also try flowers that are similar in color, such as more purple or orange flowers. (Pink petals may not work well.) Larger petals, such as those from roses and tulips, work better than smaller petals.
&bull Piece of scratch paper
&bull Coin
&bull Timer or clock

&bull Cut the paper towels into strips that are each about one inch wide. Make each strip the same height as your large-mouth glass jar. Cut at least one strip for each type of flower you want to investigate.
&bull Draw a pencil line one inch from the bottom end of each paper strip.
&bull At the other end of each paper strip, use a pencil to label which flower will be spotted on the strip.
&bull In a clean jar, drinking class or mug mix one quarter cup of water with one quarter cup of the isopropyl rubbing alcohol. Pour a small amount of this mixture into the large-mouth glass jar, a little less than an inch deep. Adult supervision is recommended when working with the isopropyl rubbing alcohol.

&bull Place a piece of scratch paper on a hard, flat surface. (Some pigments can stain so you will want to protect the surface with this piece of scratch paper.) Put one of the paper towel strips on top of the piece of scratch paper. Lay a flower petal on the paper strip, over the line you drew.
&bull Roll a coin on its edge, like a wheel, over the petal and across the pencil line. Push down hard so that the petal is crushed and a strip of pigment is visibly transferred to the paper towel strip. Repeat this about three or four times (using a fresh part of the petal each time) so that a thick line of pigment is transferred to the pencil line. How does the line of pigment look? Is it what you expected?
&bull Tape the paper towel strip to the pencil so that when the pencil is laid horizontally across the top of the large-mouth glass jar, the strip hangs straight into the jar and the bottom edge of the strip is just barely immersed in the diluted isopropyl rubbing alcohol. The pigment line should not be immersed in the liquid. (To do this you may need to cut off part of the top of the strip.) Use a small piece of tape so that it does not cover much of the strip.
&bull Lay the pencil across the top of the large-mouth glass jar, as described, and let the liquid rise up the paper towel strip until the liquid is about an inch from the top of the strip. Remove the strip at this point. (This may take about 20 to 60 minutes.) What has happened to the pigment on the strips? Keep a close eye on the strip and where the liquid is&mdashif you let the strip run too long, the liquid can reach the top of the strip and distort your results.
&bull Allow the paper towel strip to dry out. An easy way to do this is to tape the strip to the overhang of a counter or table so that the strip is dangling in the air.
&bull Now prepare a paper towel strip for one of the other flowers you want to investigate, rolling a coin over the pencil line as you did before. Put the prepared strip in the jar and, as you did with the first strip, run the new strip until it is similarly done. Do the results look similar to the results from the first flower?
&bull Repeat this process for any other flowers you want to investigate, using a new, pencil-marked paper towel strip for each one.
&bull Look at all of your finished paper towel strips together. If you see the same color band around the same height on different paper strips, it is likely that it is the same pigment. Do different red flowers have the same pigments in them? Do any of the flowers you investigated have more than one pigment? If you investigated more purple or orange flowers, do they have different pigments? Do your results make sense to you?
&bull Extra: Try this activity with flowers that vary even more in their coloration. Do other colored flowers have pigments similar to the ones in the red flowers?
&bull Extra: Some plants grow very colorful leaves, such as coleus plants, bromeliads and purple clovers. You could try this activity again, but this time investigate colorful leaves on plants instead of flowers. What pigments make the leaves so colorful? Are these the same as the pigments in similarly colored flowers?
&bull Extra: A more accurate way to identify flower pigments using paper chromatography is by determining their retention factor (Rf factor). The Rf value is the ratio between how far the pigment travels and the distance the liquid travels from a common starting point (the pencil line you drew on the strips). If other conditions are kept the same, the Rf value for a certain pigment should be consistent. You can do this activity again, but this time measure these distances and calculate the Rf value for the pigments. Based on the Rf values, do the pigments look like they're the same in different types of red flowers?

Observations and results
Did you find that most (or all) of the red flowers used the same pigments? Did the pigments create a reddish-purplish band on the paper towel strips?

Carotene pigments (which are carotenoids) produce yellow, orange and red colors whereas anthocyanin pigments (which are flavonoids) produce red, purple, magenta and blue colors. Most red flowers use anthocyanin pigments to produce their red coloring (although some use carotenoids). On the paper strips, the anthocyanin pigments may have appeared as a purplish-reddish band. If different red flowers made similarly colored bands around the same height on the paper towel strip as one another, then they likely have the same pigment. If the bands are different colors and/or at different heights, however, then they're probably different pigments. Carotene pigments are more commonly found in vegetables, and, in fact, they are what make carrots look orange. Yellow and orange flowers can have carotenoids or flavonoids, and blue flowers often have anthocyanin pigments that are modified. Some flowers even have chlorophyll that gives them green coloring.

In paper chromatography the pigments move up the paper with the liquid and are separated based on the solubility of the pigments. So, if a pigment is very soluble in the diluted isopropyl rubbing alcohol, it should be easily carried far up the paper strip whereas a less soluble pigment will generally travel a shorter distance. Because different pigments often have different solubilities, they can be separated from one another on the paper strip.

More to explore
What Pigments are in Fruit and Flowers? from WebExhibits
The Chemical Pigments of Plants ( pdf ), from Joy Alkema and Spencer L. Seager, Weber State University, Ogden, Utah
Paper Chromatography , from Chemguide
Reveal the Red: Exploring the Chemistry of Red Flower Pigments , from Science Buddies

This activity brought to you in partnership with Science Buddies

Identification of a purple flower - Biology

Plants of the Mustard Family
(Previously known as Cruciferae )

Mustard flowers are easy to recognize. If you have a radish or turnip blooming in the garden, then take a close look at the blossoms. When identifying flower parts, it is best to start on the outside of the flower and work towards the middle like this: sepals, petals, stamens, and pistil(s).

On the outside of the mustard flower you will see 4 sepals, usually green. There are also 4 petals, typically arranged like either the letters "X" or "H". Inside the flower you will see 6 stamens: 4 tall and 2 short. You can remember that the stamens are the male part of the flower because they always "stay men". The female part is the pistil, found at the very center of the flower.

For the purposes of the Mustard family, all you need to remember is "4 petals with 6 stamens--4 tall and 2 short". If you find that combination in a flower, then you know it is a member of the Mustard family. Worldwide there are 375 genera and 3200 species. About 55 genera are found in North America.

All species of Mustard are edible, although some taste better than others. In other words, it doesn't matter which species of mustard you find. As long as you have correctly identified it as a member of the Mustard family, then you can safely try it and see if you want it in your salad or not.

Most members of the Mustard family are weedy species with short lifecycles like the radish. Look for them in disturbed soils such as a garden or construction site, where the ground is exposed to rapid drying by the sun and wind. The Mustards sprout quickly and grow fast, flowering and setting seed early in the season before all moisture is lost from the ground.

Also be sure to look closely at a Mustard seedpod, called a silicle or silique, meaning a pod where the outside walls fall away leaving the translucent interior partition intact. They come in many shapes and sizes, as you can see in the illustration, but they always form a raceme on the flower stalk, which looks something like a spiral staircase for the little people. With practice you can easily recognize the mustards by their seed stalks alone, and from fifty feet away. Identification by the seed stalks is helpful since many of the flowers are too small to peer inside and count the stamens without a good hand lens.

Interestingly, six of our common vegetables--cabbage, cauliflower, kohlrabi, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, and kale--were all bred from a single species of mustard, Brassica oleracea . Plant breeders developed the starch-storage abilities of different parts of the plant to come up with each unique vegetable. Commercial mustard is usually made from the seeds of the black mustard ( B. nigra ) mixed with vinegar.

As you become more familiar with this family, you will begin to notice patterns in the taste and smell of the plants. While each species has its own unique taste and smell, you will soon discover an underlying pattern of mustardness. You will be able to recognize likely members of the family simply by crushing the leaves and smelling them.

Lesser Canary Grass (Phalaris minor)

Canary grass seed heads appearing above a crop of spring barley

The least common of the four weeds that the ECT project is focusing on. It is becoming increasingly common in parts of the South and South East especially where continuous spring barley is the predominant crop. The ECT project is looking to fill the knowledge gap around the growth habits and crop losses that it can cause in our climate.

Pinkish red exudates on the tips of the root of a Canary grass seedling

When identifying it the key characteristics are:

  • Leaves rolled within the stem,
  • No auricles,
  • No stolon’s or rhizomes, the roots produce a bright red/pinkish exudate which is very distinctive
  • It does not produce tillers but instead produces lateral or side shoots
  • Ligule is medium to long (3-8mm) and pointed

Detailed information about the growth habit and biology of Canary grass is sparse in an Irish context.

Milk Thistle Silybum marianum

To support our efforts please browse our store (books with medicinal info, etc.).

For over 2,000 years people around the world have enjoyed milk thistle in their diet. Just about all parts of the plant have been used as food with no reports of toxicity. Although it can be used as food, milk thistle is better known as having medicinal benefits. It is a great tonic, increases appetite and aids in digestion. It is used by many people, including those who were addicted to alcohol to cleanse the liver. Milk thistle is used internally in the treatment of liver and gall bladder diseases, jaundice, cirrhosis, hepatitis and poisoning (including mushroom poisoning).

Distinguishing Features

Milk thistle is a stout, biennial or annual plant that grows up to one metre tall and has a branched, stem. This wild edible takes two years to complete the growing cycle. It is best known as having a unique shaped flower and leaves that are somewhat prickly to the touch if not careful. Each milk thistle flower can produce almost 200 seeds, with an average of 6,350 seeds per plant per year.


Milk thistle flower heads average between 4 and 12 cm. long and wide, and are light purple in colour. They flower from June to August in the northern hemisphere or December to February in the southern hemisphere (these grow in many countries).


The leaves of the milk thistle are oblong to lanceolate in shape. They are either lobate or pinnate, with spiny edges. Leaves are hairless, are alternate, and have milky-white veins. The upper leaves clasp the stem.


Milk thistle grows up to one metre tall.


Milk thistle grows in dry, rocky soils, preferring sunny or lightly shaded areas. It also likes waste places in many areas around the world.

Edible Parts

The young stalks, leaves, roots and flowers can be eaten. Milk thistle root can be eaten raw or cooked. Leaves can be eaten raw or cooked however the very sharp leaf-spines must be removed first. When cooked these leaves make a great spinach substitute. Flower buds can be cooked. The stems can be eaten raw or cooked. They are best when peeled and soaking is recommended to reduce the bitterness. Milk thistle can be used like asparagus or rhubarb or added to salads. They are at their best when used in spring when they are young. Roasted milk thistle seeds can be used as coffee substitute.

When are the purple flowers not that pretty?

Look around your yard to be sure if the purple flowers that you see blossoming are intentional or have grown without your knowledge. If you are not aware of them, then these could be the purple flowering weeds, and you want to get rid of them. The first step is to identify the weed and then eradicate them using the right methods.

However, some gardeners want to keep the weeds because of their nutritional value or just for their pretty bloom. As a gardener, you should weigh the risks and benefits of letting these weeds grow, as they could quickly spread through your entire garden and harm the other plants. Whether to keep it or remove it up to you and what you think is beneficial for your garden.

Watch the video: Purple mushroom for my identification squad (December 2022).